Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 9th May 2022

    1.     RAKHIGARHI

    • News: DNA samples collected from two human skeletons unearthed at a necropolis of a Harappan-era city site in Haryana have been sent for scientific examination, the outcome of which might tell about the ancestry and food habits of people who lived in the Rakhigarhi region thousands of years ago.
    • About Rakhigarhi:
      • Rakhigarhi or Rakhi Garhi is a village and an archaeological site belonging to the Indus Valley Civilisation in Hisar District of the northern Indian state of Haryana, situated about 150 km northwest of Delhi.
      • It was part of the mature phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating to 2600-1900 BCE.
      • It was among the largest settlements of the ancient civilisation, though most of it remains unexavated.
      • The site is located in the Ghaggar-Hakra River plain, some 27 km from the seasonal Ghaggar river.
      • Evidence of paved roads, drainage system, large rainwater collection, storage system, terracotta bricks, statue production, and skilled working of bronze and precious metals have been uncovered.
      • Jewellery, including bangles made from terracotta, conch shells, gold, and semi-precious stones, have also been found.
      • Granary is made up of mud-bricks with a floor of ramped earth plastered with mud. It has 7 rectangular or square chambers.
      • Significant traces of lime & decomposed grass are found on the lower portion of the granary wall indicating that it can also be the storehouse of grains with lime used as insecticide & grass used to prevent entry of moisture.
      • Hunting tools like copper hafts and fish hooks have been found here. Presence of various toys like mini wheels, miniature lids, sling balls, animal figurines indicates a prevalence of toy culture.
    • About Indus Valley Civilisation:
      • The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE.
      • Together with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilisations of the Near East and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from today’s northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India.
      • It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan.
      • The civilisation’s cities were noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, clusters of large non-residential buildings, and new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin).
      • A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilisation, making them the first urban centre in the region.
      • The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene, or, alternatively, accessibility to the means of religious ritual.


    • News: Justice Jamshed Burjor Pardiwala, to be sworn in as Supreme Court judge along with Justice Sudhanshu Dhulia on Monday, will be the sixth apex court judge from the Parsi community.
    • How is Chief Justice of India is appointment?
      • The Constitution of India does not mention any procedure for appointing the CJI. Article 124 (1) of the Constitution merely says, “there shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief Justice of India.”
      • Clause (2) of Article 124 of the Constitution says that every Judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President. Thus, in the absence of a constitutional provision, the procedure to appoint CJI relies on convention.
      • The outgoing CJI recommends his successor – a practice, which is strictly based on seniority. The Union Law Minister forwards the recommendation to the Prime Minister who, in turn, advises the President.
      • Thus, after a CJI retires at the age of 65, the senior most judge in the Supreme Court becomes the CJI. Seniority, however, is not defined by age, but by the number of years a judge has been serving in the top court of the country.
      • In cases where the two judges have the same seniority, other factors, like who among the two has more years of experience in the High Court or whether any of them was nominated from the bar directly, or who took the oath first, come into play.