Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 9th August 2021


    • News: Participating in a series of webinars and physical meetings — “Lado Panchayats” — under the aegis of “Selfie With Daughter Foundation”, a non-government organisation working on gender issues, over the past few weeks, women, from across the country, have advocated the need to increase the minimum marriageable age of girls to 21 years from the present 18.
    • About the issues of Child Marriage in India:
      • Child marriage in India, according to the Indian law, in a marriage where either the woman is below the age of 18 or the man is below the age of 21. Most child marriages involve girls, many of whom are in poor socio-economic conditions.
      • Child marriages are prevalent in India.
      • Estimates vary widely between sources as to the extent and scale of child marriages.
      • The International Center for Research on Women-UNICEF publications have estimated India’s child marriage rate to be 47% from a sample surveys of 1998, while the United Nations reports it to be 30% in 2005.
      • The Census of India has counted and reported married women by age, with proportion of females in child marriage falling in each 10 year census period since 1981.
      • In its 2001 census report, India stated zero married girls below the age of 10, 1.4 million married girls out of 59.2 million girls aged 10–14, and 11.3 million married girls out of 46.3 million girls aged 15–19.
      • Rural rates of child marriages were three times higher than urban India rates in 2009.
      • Child marriage was outlawed in 1929, under Indian law. However, in the British colonial times, the legal minimum age of marriage was set at 14 for girls and 18 for boys.
      • Under protests from Muslim organizations in undivided British India, a personal law Shariat Act was passed in 1937 that allowed child marriages with consent from a girl’s guardian.
      • After India’s independence in 1947, the act underwent two revisions. The minimum legal age for marriage was increased to 15 for girls in 1949, and to 18 for females and 21 for males in 1978.


    • News: The Hyderabad-based Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL), under the Ministry of Defence, and the Uttar Pradesh Expressways Industrial Development Authority have signed an agreement to set up a unit in the Uttar Pradesh Defence Corridor.
    • About Bharat Dynamics Limited:
      • Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) is one of India’s manufacturers of ammunitions and missile systems.
      • It was founded in 1970 in Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
      • BDL was established in the year 1970 to be a manufacturing base for guided weapon systems.
      • Begun with a pool of engineers drawn from Indian Ordnance Factories, DRDO and aerospace industries, BDL began by producing a first generation anti-tank guided missile – the French SS11B1.
      • This product was a culmination of a licence agreement the Government of India entered into with Aerospatiale.
      • BDL has three manufacturing units, located at Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad, Telangana; Bhanur, Medak district, Telangana and Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.
      • The only defence public sector company in the country manufacturing missiles and underwater weapons for the armed forces would be setting up an unit on 215 acres in Jhansi, its first in north India.


    • News: Russian President Vladimir Putin will join the open debate on maritime security that Prime Minister Narendra Modi will preside over on Monday at the U.N. Security Council as India holds the Presidency for the month. The Embassy of India in Russia has announced that President Putin will participate in the event through video conference.
    • About UNSC:
      • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, recommending the admission of new UN members to the General Assembly, and approving any changes to the UN Charter.
      • Its powers include establishing peacekeeping operations, enacting international sanctions, and authorizing military action.
      • The UNSC is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions on member states.
      • Like the UN as a whole, the Security Council was created after World War II to address the failings of the League of Nations in maintaining world peace.
      • It held its first session on 17 January 1946, and in the ensuing decades was largely paralyzed by the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies.
      • The Security Council consists of fifteen members, of which five are permanent: the People’s Republic of China, the French Republic, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America.
      • These were the great powers, or their successor states, that were the victors of World War II.
      • Permanent members can veto any substantive resolution, including those on the admission of new member states to the United Nations or nominees for the office of Secretary-General.
      • The remaining ten members are elected on a regional basis to serve a term of two years. The body’s presidency rotates monthly among its members.


    • News: The Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) force, which guards the Line of Actual Control (LAC) along the India-China border, on Sunday commissioned its first two women officers in combat after they completed their training here.
    • Details:
      • The ITBP started recruiting women combat officers in its cadre from 2016 through an all-India examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).
      • Before this, it had combat women only in the constabulary ranks.
    • About Indo – Tibetan Border Police:
      • The Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP) is India’s primary border patrol organization for its border with China’s Tibet Autonomous Region.
      • It is one of the five Central Armed Police Forces of India, raised on 24 October 1962, under the CRPF Act, in the wake of the Sino-Indian War of 1962.
      • In September 1996, the Parliament of India enacted the “Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force Act, 1992” to “provide for the constitution and regulation” of the ITBP “for ensuring the security of the borders of India and for matters connected therewith”.
      • The first head of the ITBP, designated Inspector General, was Balbir Singh, a police officer previously belonging to the Intelligence Bureau.