Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 8th April 2022


    • News: Russia’s membership to the Human Rights Council (HRC), to which it was elected in 2020, was suspended on Thursday after the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) voted, 93 to 24, with 58 abstentions, including India, to adopt a resolution suspending Moscow from the UN body.
    • About United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC):
      • The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
      • The Council has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis.
      • The headquarters of the Council are in Geneva, Switzerland.
      • The Council investigates allegations of breaches of human rights in United Nations member states and addresses thematic human rights issues like freedom of association and assembly, freedom of expression, freedom of belief and religion, women’s rights, LGBT rights, and the rights of racial and ethnic minorities.
      • The Council was established by the United Nations General Assembly on 15 March 2006 to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR, herein CHR).
      • The Council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and engages the United Nations special procedures.
      • The Council has been strongly criticized for including member countries that engage in human rights abuses.
      • The UNHRC can decide at any time to hold a special session to address human rights violations and emergencies, at the request of one-third of the member states.
      • The Council consists of 47 members, elected yearly by the General Assembly for staggered three-year terms.
      • Members are selected via the basis of equitable geographic rotation using the United Nations regional grouping system.
      • Members are eligible for re-election for one additional term, after which they must relinquish their seat.
      • The seats are distributed along the following lines:
        • 13 for the African Group
        • 13 for the Asia-Pacific Group
        • 6 for the Eastern European Group
        • 8 for the Latin American and Caribbean Group
        • 7 for the Western European and Others Group


    • News: The Opposition Rashtriya Janata Dal on Thursday improved its tally in the Bihar Legislative Council, winning six of the 24 seats to which elections were held on April 4.
    • About State Legislative Councils:
      • The State Legislative Council, or Vidhan Parishad, or Saasada Mandali is the upper house in those states of India that have a bicameral state legislature; the lower house being the State Legislative Assembly.
      • Its establishment is defined in Article 168 of the Constitution of India.
      • As of 2022, 6 out of 28 states have a State Legislative Council. These are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Maharashtra, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh.
      • To become a member of a State Legislative Council (MLC), a person must be a citizen of India, at least 30 years old, mentally sound, not an insolvent, and must be enrolled on the voter’s list of the state for which he or she is contesting an election.
      • He or she may not be a Member of Parliament and Member of the State Legislative Assembly at the same time.
        The tenure of the MLCs are six years.
      • One-third of the members of State Legislative Council retire after every two years. This arrangement parallels that for the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India.
      • The size of the State Legislative Council cannot be more than one third of the membership of the State Legislative Assembly. However, its size cannot be less than 40 members. These members elect the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the State Legislative Council.
      • MLCs are chosen in the following manner:
        • One third are elected by the members of local bodies such as municipalities, Gram panchayats, Panchayat samitis and district councils.
        • One third are elected by the members of Legislative Assembly of the State from among the persons who are not members of the State Legislative Assembly.
        • One sixth are nominated by the Governor from persons having knowledge or practical experience in fields such as literature, science, arts, the co-operative movement and social services.
        • One twelfth are elected by persons who are graduates of three years’ standing residing in that state.
        • One twelfth are elected by teachers who had spent at least three years in teaching in educational institutions within the state not lower than secondary schools, including colleges and universities.
      • According to the Article 169 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India can create or abolish the State Legislative Council of a state if that state’s legislature passes a resolution for that with a special majority. As of December 2020, 6 out of the 28 states have State Legislative Council.
      • The Constitution of India gives limited power to the State Legislative Council. The State Legislative Council can neither form or dissolve a state government.
      • The State Legislative Council also have no role in the passing of money bills. But some of the powers it has is that the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the State Legislative Council enjoy the same status of Cabinet Ministers in the state.


    • News: Respite from heat People taking a dip at the Manchanabele dam, built across the Arkavathi river in Karnataka
    • About Arkavathi River:
      • The Arkavati is an important mountain river in Karnataka, India, originating at Nandi Hills of Chikkaballapura district.
      • It is a tributary of the Kaveri, which it joins at 34 km south of Kanakapura, Ramanagara District called Sangama in Kannada, after flowing through Ramanagara and Kanakapura.
      • The river drains into the Chikkarayappanahalli Lake near Kanivenarayanapura. Kumudavathi and Vrishabhavathi rivers are tributaries to this river.
      • It forms Chunchi falls near Haroshivanahalli. It joins Cauvery river as a tributary near Mekedatu.
      • The river originates in the Nandi Hills in the Chikkaballapura district and flows through Ramanagara and Kanakapura before it eventually drains into the Chikkarayappanahalli Lake near Kanivenarayanapura.
      • The Arkavati joins the Kaveri river around 34 km south of Kanakapura in the Ramanagara District.
      • The river has three tributaries; Kumudavathi River, Suvarnamukhi River, and Vrishabhavathi River.

    4.    GATI SHAKTI

    • News: GatiShakti and the production-linked incentive (PLI) schemes will offset global headwinds and drive investment, resulting in high post-recovery growth for the Indian economy.
    • About Gati Shakti:
      • PM Gati Shakti Plan, a 100 lakh crore national infrastructure master plan which will make a foundation for holistic infrastructure and give an integrated pathway to our economy.
      • Gati Shakti plan will help raise the global profile of local manufacturers and help them compete with their counterparts worldwide. It also raises possibilities of new future economic zones.
      • It will incorporate the infrastructure schemes of various Ministries and State Governments like Bharatmala, Sagarmala, inland waterways, dry/land ports, UDAN etc.
      • Economic Zones like textile clusters, pharmaceutical clusters, defence corridors, electronic parks, industrial corridors, fishing clusters, agri zones will be covered to improve connectivity & make Indian businesses more competitive.
      • It will also leverage technology extensively including spatial planning tools with ISRO imagery developed by BiSAG-N (Bhaskaracharya National Institute for Space Applications and Geoinformatics).
      • The multi-modal connectivity will provide integrated and seamless connectivity for movement of people, goods and services from one mode of transport to another.
      • It will facilitate the last mile connectivity of infrastructure and also reduce travel time for people.