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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 7th June 2022


    • News: India on Monday hit out at the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) over its statement condemning the derogatory comments made by two BJP leaders on Prophet Muhammed and Islam, even as more nations, including India’s crucial Gulf partner, the UAE, security partners Oman and Jordan, Pakistan and the Maldives, came out strongly against the remarks.
    • About Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC):
      • The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, is an intergovernmental organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states.
      • The organisation states that it is “the collective voice of the Muslim world” and works to “safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony”.
      • The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French.
      • The member states had a collective population of over 1.8 billion as of 2015, with 49 being Muslim-majority countries. This accounts for just under a quarter of the world’s population.


    • News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday urged bank chiefs to make it easier for people to get loans through the new Jan Samarth portal, a repository of a dozen credit-linked government schemes.
    • About Jan Samarth Portal:
      • On June 6, 2022, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched a “national portal for credit-linked government schemes” called “Jan Samarth Portal”.
      • Portal was launched during the ‘Iconic Week Celebrations’ of Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Corporate Affairs at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi.
      • Jan Samarth Portal is a one-stop digital portal, that links the government credit schemes. It is first of its kind platform, connecting beneficiaries directly to the lenders.
      • This portal has been launched in a bid to encourage inclusive growth and development of several sectors by guiding and providing them the right government benefits by means of simple and easy digital processes. It ensures end-to-end coverage of all the linked schemes.
      • Jan Samarth Portal is a unique digital portal, that will link 13 Credit Linked Government schemes on a single platform.
      • This portal will help in improving the lives of students, businessmen, farmers, MSME entrepreneurs as well as help them in realizing their dreams. The Portal has an open architecture, which will help state governments and other organisations to add their plans on it, in future.


    • News: National Conference president Dr. Farooq Abdullah is touring the Pir Panjal valley, the second such visit since Omar Abdullah’s back-to-back meetings of the region in May.
    • About Pir Panjal Range:
      • The Pir Panjal Range is a group of mountains in the Lesser Himalayan region, running from east-southeast (ESE) to west-northwest (WNW) across the Indian territories of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir and then Pakistan’s Azad Kashmir and Punjab.
      • The average elevation varies from 1,400 m (4,600 ft) to 4,100 m (13,500 ft).
      • The Himalayas show a gradual elevation towards the Dhauladhar and Pir Panjal ranges.
      • Pir Panjal is the largest range of the Lesser Himalayas. Near the bank of the Sutlej River, it dissociates itself from the Himalayas and forms a divide between the Beas and Ravi rivers on one side and the Chenab on the other.
      • The renowned Galyat mountains are also located in this range.
      • Haji Pir Pass (altitude 2,637 m (8,652 ft)) on the western Pir Panjal range on the road between Poonch and Uri.
      • The Pir Panjal Pass (also called Peer Ki Gali) connects the Kashmir valley with Rajouri and Poonch via the Mughal Road.
      • The Banihal pass (2,832 m (9,291 ft)) lies at the head of the Jhelum River at the southern end of the Kashmir Valley. Banihal and Qazigund lie on either side of the pass.
      • The Sinthan pass connects Jammu and Kashmir with Kishtwar.
      • Rohtang La (altitude 3,978 m (13,051 ft)) is a mountain pass on the eastern Pir Panjal range connecting Manali in the Kullu Valley to Keylong in the Lahaul Valley.


    • News: Petitioners in the Delhi High Court questioned why marital status, age, or gender were the criteria for being allowed to commission or not commission surrogacy in India.
    • About Surrogacy Act:
      • As per the Surrogacy Act that kicked in from January this year, a married couple can opt for surrogacy only on medical grounds.
      • The law defines a couple as a married Indian “man and woman” and also prescribes an age-criteria with the woman being in the age group of 23 to 50 years and the man between 26 to 55 years.
      • Additionally, the couple should not have a child of their own.
      • Though the law allows single women to resort to surrogacy, she should either be a widow or a divorcee, between the age of 35 to 45 years. Single men are however, not eligible.
      • The Act sought to regulate the surrogacy part of a rather flourishing infertility industry in the country.
      • Defining ‘surrogacy’ as a practice where a woman undertakes to give birth to a child for another couple and agrees to hand over the child to them after birth, it allows ‘altruistic surrogacy’ — wherein only the medical expenses and insurance coverage is provided by the couple to the surrogate mother during pregnancy.
      • No other monetary consideration will be permitted.
    • Need for regulation:
      • India has emerged as a hub for infertility treatment, attracting people from the world over with its state of the art technology and competitive prices to treat infertility.
      • Soon enough, due to prevailing socio-economic inequities, underprivileged women found an option to ‘rent their wombs’ and thereby make money to take care of their expenses — often to facilitate a marriage, enable children to get an education, or to provide for hospitalisation or surgery for someone in the family.
      • Once information of the availability of such wombs got out, the demand also picked up. Unscrupulous middle men inveigled themselves into the scene and exploitation of these women began. Several instances began to emerge where women, in often desperate straits, started lodging police complaints after they did not receive the promised sum.
      • Other issues also began to crop up. For instance, in 2008 a Japanese couple began the process with a surrogate mother in Gujarat, but before the child was born they split with both of them refusing to take the child. In 2012, an Australian couple commissioned a surrogate mother, and arbitrarily chose one of the twins that were born.


    • News: World Food Safety Day is observed every year on June 7.
    • About World Food Safety Day:
      • Food is the most important aspect of the lives of all beings. It is a common saying, “We are what we eat,” and on June 7, the world is observing Food Safety Day.
      • The occasion is an annual celebration to draw attention and inspire action to help prevent, detect and manage foodborne risks and improve human health.
      • The United Nations established World Food Safety Day in 2018 to raise awareness about food safety.
      • Year after year we see a growing number of initiatives that help increase the public’s awareness of food safety, which is a great achievement according to the World Health Organisation.
      • Foodborne diseases range from mild to very serious and can even lead to death. From a social perspective, they contribute to absenteeism from school and work and reduce productivity. Each person has a role to play – whether you grow, process, transport, store, sell, buy, prepare or serve food – food safety is in your hands. Only when food is safe can we fully benefit from its nutritional value and from the mental and social benefits of sharing a safe meal. Safe food is one of the most critical guarantors for good health.
      • The theme for World Food Safety Day 2022 is ‘Safer food, better health’. The theme was announced by the World Health Organization (WHO).