geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 7th July 2020

    1.   AIRPORTS AUTHORITY OF INDIA PUTS AIR INDIA ON CASH AND CARRY MODE

    • News: The Airports Authority of India (AAI) has put Air India in cash-and-carry mode at the Ahmedabad, Bhubaneswar, Chennai and Kolkata airports from July 7 owing to accumulation of dues.
    • About Airport Authority of India (AAI):
      • The Government of India constituted the International Airports Authority of India (IAAI) in 1972 to manage the nation’s international airports while the National Airports Authority (NAA) was constituted in 1986 to look after domestic airports.
      • The organisations were merged in April 1995 by an Act of Parliament, namely, the Airports Authority of India Act, 1994 and has been constituted as a Statutory Body and was named as Airports Authority of India (AAI).
      • The Airports Authority of India or AAI is a statutory body (created through the Airports Authority of India Act, 1994) working under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India is responsible for creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure in India.
      • It provides Communication Navigation Surveillance / Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) services over Indian airspace and adjoining oceanic areas.
      • With the mission to be the foundation of an enduring Indian aviation network, providing high quality, safe and customer oriented airport & air navigation services, AAI is currently managing a total of 137 Airports, including 23 International Airports, 10 Customs Airports, 81 Domestic Airports and 23 Civil enclaves at Defense Airfields.
      • AAI also has ground installations at all airports and 25 other locations to ensure safety of aircraft operations.
      • AAI covers all major air-routes over Indian landmass via 29 Radar installations at 11 locations
    • About Air India:
      • Air India is the flag carrier airline of India, headquartered at New Delhi.
      • It is owned by Air India Limited, a government-owned enterprise, and operates a fleet of Airbus and Boeing aircraft serving 102 domestic and international destinations.
      • Air India is the largest international carrier out of India with an 18.6% market share.
      • The airline was founded by J. R. D. Tata as Tata Airlines in 1932; Tata himself flew its first single-engine de Havilland Puss Moth, carrying air mail from Karachi to Bombay’s Juhu aerodrome and later continuing to Madras (currently Chennai).
      • After World War II, it became a public limited company and was renamed as Air India.
      • On 21 February 1960, it took delivery of its first Boeing 707 named Gauri Shankar and became the first Asian airline to induct a jet aircraft in its fleet.

    2.   ZARDOSI ARTISTS

    • News: Craning over a wooden frame, Yousuf Khan, billed as the oldest zardozi craftsperson of the Nadeem Road here, nimbly weaves metallic threads into a cotton cloth stretched across it. This is his first assignment after the lockdown eased a month ago. But as it concluded in two hours, he was left without work once again.
    • About Zardosi:
      • Zardozi or Zar-douzi, also Zardosi, work is a type of embroidery in Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Turkey, Central Asia, India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
      • Zardozi comes from two Persian words: zar or zarin meaning ‘gold’, and dozi meaning ‘sewing’.
      • Zardozi is a type of heavy and elaborate metal embroidery on a silk, satin, or velvet fabric base.
      • Designs are often created using gold and silver threads and can incorporate pearls, beads, and precious stones.
      • It is used as decoration for a wide range of applications, including clothes, household textiles, and animal trappings.
      • Initially, the embroidery was done with pure silver wires and real gold leaves. However, today, craftsmen make use of a combination of copper wire, with a golden or silver polish, and silk thread.

    3.   INDIA IN TOP 5 IN OPIUM SEIZURES: UNODC

    • News: The fourth highest seizure of opium in 2018 was reported from India, after Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, according to the latest World Drug Report of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
    • Details:
      • The maximum of 644 tonnes of opium was seized in Iran, followed by 27 tonnes in Afghanistan and 19 tonnes in Pakistan.
      • In India, the figure stood at four tonnes in 2018.
      • In terms of heroin seizure (1.3 tonnes), India was at the 12th position in the world.
      • Again, Iran reported the highest seizure of heroin (25 tonnes), followed by Turkey, United States, China, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
      • Heroin is manufactured from the morphine extracted from the seed pod of opium poppy plants.
      • Opium is illicitly produced in about 50 countries. However, close to 97% of the total global production of opium in the past five years came from only three countries.
    • About Golden Triangle:
      • The Golden Triangle is the area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong rivers.
    • About Golden Crescent:
      • The Golden Crescent is the name given to one of Asia’s two principal areas of illicit opium production (with the other being the Golden Triangle), located at the crossroads of Central, South, and Western Asia.
      • This space overlaps three nations, Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan, whose mountainous peripheries define the crescent.
      • The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) heroin production estimates for the past 10 years show significant changes in the primary source areas.
      • In 1991, Afghanistan became the world’s primary opium producer, with a yield of 1,782 metric tons (U.S. State Department estimates), surpassing Myanmar, formerly the world leader in opium production.
    • About UNODC:
      • The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program (UNDCP) and the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Division in the United Nations Office at Vienna.
      • It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and was renamed the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in 2002.
      • Its headquarter is located in Vienna, Austria.
      • UNODC was established to assist the UN in better addressing a coordinated, comprehensive response to the interrelated issues of illicit trafficking in and abuse of drugs, crime prevention and criminal justice, international terrorism, and political corruption.
      • These goals are pursued through three primary functions: research, guidance and support to governments in the adoption and implementation of various crime-, drug-, terrorism-, and corruption-related conventions, treaties and protocols, as well as technical/financial assistance to said governments to face their respective situations and challenges in these fields.
      • The office aims long-term to better equip governments to handle drug-, crime-, terrorism-, and corruption-related issues, to maximise knowledge on these issues among governmental institutions and agencies, and also to maximise awareness of said matters in public opinion, globally, nationally and at community level.
      • Approximately 90% of the Office’s funding comes from voluntary contributions, mainly from governments.
      • It publishes the World Drug Report.

    4.   VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK (VPN)

    • News: VPNs are useful in countries which have low index of Internet freedom and harsh Internet restrictions. According to Freedom House, India has a 55/100 score(a two-point drop from last year’s score), largely owing to the numerous Internet blackouts, political propaganda campaigns on the Internet, and subsequent pushes of ‘inorganic content.’
    • About VPN:
      • A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
      • Applications running across a VPN may therefore benefit from the functionality, security, and management of the private network.
      • Encryption is a common, although not an inherent, part of a VPN connection.
      • In other applications, Internet users may secure their connections with a VPN to circumvent geo-restrictions and censorship or to connect to proxy servers to protect personal identity and location to stay anonymous on the Internet.