Current Affairs 6th September 2022

1.    ONE DISTRICT ONE PRODUCT INITIATIVE

  • News: The upcoming foreign trade policy is expected to have a chapter dedicated to e-commerce in an acknowledgement of the rising volume of digital transactions in the economy.
  • About One District One Product Initiative:
    • One District One Product (ODOP) is an initiative which is seen as a transformational step forward towards realizing the true potential of a district, fuel economic growth and generate employment and rural entrepreneurship, taking us to the goal of AtmaNirbhar Bharat.
    • One District One Product (ODOP) initiative is operationally merged with ‘Districts as Export Hub’ initiative being implemented by DGFT, Department of Commerce, with Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) as a major stakeholder.
    • The Department of Commerce through DGFT is engaging with State and Central government agencies to promote the initiative of One District One Product.
    • The objective is to convert each District of the country into an Export Hub by identifying products with export potential in the District, addressing bottlenecks for exporting these products, supporting local exporters/manufacturers to scale up manufacturing, and find potential buyers outside India with the aim of promoting exports, promoting manufacturing & services industry in the District and generate employment in the District.
    • To increase exports and take export promotion to the District level, Department of Commerce through the Director General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) is engaging with State / UT Governments to implement the said initiative in all districts of the country in a phased manner, with the objective of mobilizing the potential of each district of the country to achieve its potential as an export hub.
    • Under the initial phase of the ODOP programme, 106 Products have been identified from 103 districts across 27 States.
    • As far as Rajasthan is concerned, two products namely Blue Pottery (Jaipur) and MarkhanaMarbels (Nagaur) are among the identified 106 Products.
    • DEPC is constituted in all Districts of India, except districts of the state of West Bengal.

2.    INDIA SEEKS ACCESS TO SOUTH AMERICA FOR ITS PHARMA SECTOR

  • News: India is pressing for preferential market access for drugs and pharmaceutical items such as generics, active pharma ingredients (APIs) and alternative medicines in $58 billion South American market.
  • Details:
    • Currently, the region stands 4th in position for Indian exports. India’s pharma exports to the LAC region have grown from $ 869.96 million in FY-2017 to $ 1707.67 million in FY-2022 registering a compound annual growth rate of 14.5%.
    • India is the largest supplier of medicines to Bolivia.
  • What is Active Pharma Ingredient?
    • Active ingredients are the substances in drugs that are responsible for the beneficial health effects experienced by consumers.
    • The active ingredient in a pharmaceutical drug is called an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).
    • An example of an API is the acetaminophen contained in a pain relief tablet.
    • The quality of active ingredients in a drug has a direct effect on the safety and efficacy of that drug. Poorly manufactured and contaminated active ingredients have been associated with negative health outcomes, including death, in a number of incidents over the past decades.

3.    PM-SHRI SCHEME

  • News: On the occasion of Teachers’ Day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that over 14,500 schools will be developed and upgraded across India under the Pradhan Mantri Schools For Rising India (PM-SHRI) Yojana.
  • About PM – SHRI Scheme:
    • Under it, as many as 14,500 schools across states and Union Territories will be redeveloped to reflect the key features of the NEP, 2020.
    • The plan was first discussed with the education ministers of states and UTs during a conference organised by the Ministry of Education in June at Gandhinagar in Gujarat.
    • Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan had then said that the initiative will be taken forward in consultation with the states. He had added that while there are exemplary schools like Navodaya Vidyalayas, Kendriya Vidyalayas, the PM SHRI will act as “NEP labs”.
    • The NEP envisages a curricular structure and teaching style divided into various stages – foundational, preparatory, middle and secondary.
    • The foundational years (pre-school and grades I, II) will involve play-based learning. At the preparatory level (III-V), light textbooks are to be introduced along with some formal classroom teaching.
    • Subject teachers are to be introduced at the middle level (VI-VIII). Secondary stage (IX-XII) will be multidisciplinary in nature with no hard separation between arts and sciences or other disciplines.
    • A centrally sponsored scheme is one where the cost of implementation is likely to split in the 60:40 ratio among the Union government and the states/Union Territories.
    • For instance, the mid-day meal scheme (PM Poshan) or the PM Awas Yojana are examples of centrally sponsored schemes. In the case of the Northeastern states, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir and UTs without legislatures, the Centre’s contribution can go up to 90 per cent.
    • Kendriya Vidyalayas or Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas come entirely under the Centre’s Ministry of Education. They are fully-funded by the Union government under Central Sector Schemes. While KVs largely cater to children of Union government employees posted in states and UTs, JNVs were set up to nurture talented students in rural parts of the country.
    • In contrast, PM SHRI schools will be an upgrade of existing schools run by the Centre, states, UTs and local bodies. This essentially means that PM SHRI schools can either be KVs, JNVs, state government schools or even those run by municipal corporations.

4.    CHILEANS REJECT OVERHAUL OF CONSTITUTION

  • News: President Gabriel Boric vowed to continue working to reform the political landscape after Chileans on Sunday emphatically rejected a proposed new Constitution to replace the one adopted during the Augusto Pinochet dictatorship.
  • Details:
    • With more than 99% of votes counted, the reject camp led with almost 62% compared to just over 38% for those in favour, in a result that exceeded the expectations of the conservative opposition.
    • Leftist Mr. Boric, who supported the new text, accepted the defeat but pledged to “do everything on my part to build a new constituent itinerary.”
    • Boric said the people had demonstrated “that they want and value democracy, they are counting on it to overcome our differences and to progress.”
    • He then called on “all political forces to put Chile ahead of any legitimate differences and agree as soon as possible on the deadlines and parameters for a new constitutional process.”
    • The result is a far greater margin of victory than was predicted by opinion polls, which had suggested the constitution would be rejected by up to 10 percentage points.
    • “President Boric: this defeat is also your defeat,” said far-right leader Jose Antonio Kast, an outspoken admirer of Pinochet who last December lost an election run-off to Mr. Boric.
    • Opponents of the constitutional change poured onto the streets, waving Chilean flags to celebrate their victory.
    • Although celebrating the “defeat for the refounding of Chile,” Javier Macaya, president of the conservative UDI party, said his party would fulfil its commitment to work towards a new constitution.
    • More than 15 million people were eligible to vote in the compulsory election.
    • Social upheaval that began in 2019 provided the impulse to overhaul the Constitution, but the 388-article draft proved controversial and often confusing.
  • Welfare-based society
    • The proposed Constitution aimed to build a more welfare-based society, boost Indigenous rights and legalize abortion.
    • In October 2019, protests sprung up mostly in the capital led by students initially angered by a proposed metro fare hike.
    • Those demonstrations spiraled into wider discontent with the country’s neoliberal economic system as well as growing inequality.
    • Among the chief concerns of opponents was the prominence given to the country’s Indigenous peoples, who make up close to 13% of the 19 million-strong population.
  • Gender parity
    • Proposals to enshrine reproductive rights and protect the environment as well as natural resources such as water, which some say is exploited by private mining companies, had also garnered much attention.
    • The new Constitution would have overhauled Chile’s government, replacing the Senate with a less powerful “chamber of regions,” and requiring women to hold at least half of positions in public institutions.

5.    FACTS FOR STATE SERVICES

  • Kartavya Path: Rajpath is likely to be renamed Kartavya Path.
  • Liz Truss is now the 56th Prime Minister and the third women to hold the office of Prime Minister in U.K.
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