geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 6th October 2021

    1.     NOBEL PRIZE

    • News:S.-Japanese scientist Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann of Germany and Giorgio Parisi of Italy won the Nobel Physics Prize for climate models and the understanding of physical systems.
    • Details:
      • The Nobel committee said it was sending a message with its prize announcement just weeks before the COP26 climate summit in Glasgow.
    • About Nobel Prize:
      • The Nobel Prize is five separate prizes that, according to Sir Alfred Nobel’s will of 1895, are awarded to ”those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.”
      • Nobel Prizes are awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace (Nobel characterized the Peace Prize as “to the person who has done the most or best to advance fellowship among nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and the establishment and promotion of peace congresses”).
      • In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden’s central bank) established the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Sir Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize.
      • Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist most famously known for the invention of dynamite.
      • Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.
      • In 2020, the Nobel Prize monetary award is 10,000,000 SEK, or US$1,145,000, or €968,000, or £880,000.
      • A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.
      • Although Nobel Prizes are not awarded posthumously, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize is presented.

    2.     TAIWAN

    • News: 10th October is Taiwan’s National Day.

    3.     AYUSHMAN BHARAT YOJANA

    • News: A study on the efficacy of the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY scheme) in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu has found that a sizeable population covered under the programme bore hospitalisation expenses for COVID-19 treatment from personal funds or borrowings.
    • About Ayushman Bharat Yojana:
      • Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana is a national public health insurance fund of the Government of India that aims to provide free access to health insurance coverage for low income earners in the country. Roughly, the bottom 50% of the country qualifies for this scheme.
      • People using the program access their own primary care services from a family doctor. When anyone needs additional care, then PM-JAY provides free secondary health care for those needing specialist treatment and tertiary health care for those requiring hospitalization.
      • The programme is part of the Indian government’s National Health Policy and is means-tested.
      • It was launched in September 2018 by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. That ministry later established the National Health Authority as an organization to administer the program.
      • It is a centrally sponsored scheme and is jointly funded by both the union government and the states. By offering services to 50 crore (500 million) people it is the world’s largest government sponsored healthcare program.
      • List of Services to be provided at Health & Wellness Centre
        • Pregnancy care and maternal health services
        • Neonatal and infant health services
        • Child health
        • Chronic communicable diseases
        • Non-communicable diseases
        • Management of mental illness
        • Dental care
        • Eye care
        • Geriatric care Emergency medicine
      • Benefits:
        • AB-PMJAY provides a defined benefit cover of Rs. 5 lakh per family per year. This cover will take care of almost all secondary care and most of tertiary care procedures.
        • To ensure that nobody is left out (especially women, children and elderly) there will be no cap on family size and age in the scheme.
        • The benefit cover will also include pre and post-hospitalisation expenses. All pre-existing conditions will be covered from day one of the policy. A defined transport allowance per hospitalization will also be paid to the beneficiary.
        • Benefits of the scheme are portable across the country and a beneficiary covered under the scheme will be allowed to take cashless benefits from any public/private empanelled hospitals across the country.
        • The beneficiaries can avail benefits in both public and empanelled private facilities. All public hospitals in the States implementing AB-PMJAY, will be deemed empanelled for the Scheme. Hospitals belonging to Employee State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) may also be empanelled based on the bed occupancy ratio parameter. As for private hospitals, they will be empanelled online based on defined criteria.
        • To control costs, the payments for treatment will be done on package rate (to be defined by the Government in advance) basis. The package rates will include all the costs associated with treatment. For beneficiaries, it will be a cashless, paper less transaction. Keeping in view the State specific requirements, States/ UTs will have the flexibility to modify these rates within a limited bandwidth.
      • Eligibility criteria:
        • AB-PMJAY is an entitlement based scheme with entitlement decided on the basis of deprivation criteria in the SECC database.
      • The different categories in rural and urban areas include:
        • families having only one room with kucha walls and kucha roof;
        • families having no adult member between age 16 to 59;
        • female headed households with no adult male member between age 16 to 59;
        • disabled member and no able bodied adult member in the family;
        • SC/ST households;
        • landless households deriving major part of their income from manual casual labour,
        • Families in rural areas having any one of the following: households without shelter, destitute, living on alms, manual scavenger families, primitive tribal groups, legally released bonded labour.
        • For urban areas, 11 defined occupational categories are entitled under the scheme – Occupational Categories of Workers, Rag picker, Beggar, Domestic worker, Street vendor/ Cobbler/hawker / Other service provider working on streets, Construction worker/ Plumber/ Mason/ Labour/ Painter/ Welder/ Security guard/, Coolie and another head-load worker, Sweeper/ Sanitation worker / Mali, Home-based worker/ Artisan/ Handicrafts worker / Tailor, Transport worker/ Driver/ Conductor/ Helper to drivers and conductors/ Cart puller/ Rickshaw puller, Shop worker/ Assistant/ Peon in small establishment/ Helper/Delivery assistant / Attendant/ Waiter, Electrician/ Mechanic/ Assembler/ Repair worker, Washerman/ Chowkidar.
      • As per the SECC 2011, the following beneficiaries are automatically excluded:
        • Households having motorized 2/3/4 wheeler/fishing boat
        • Households having mechanized 3/4 wheeler agricultural equipment
        • Households having Kisan Credit Card with credit limit above Rs. 50,000/ –
        • Household member is a government employee
        • Households with non – agricultural enterprises registered with government
        • Any member of household earning more than Rs. 10,000/ – per month
        • Households paying income tax
        • Households paying professional tax
        • House with three or more rooms with pucca walls and roof
        • Owns a refrigerator
        • Owns a landline phone
        • Owns more than 2.5 acres of irrigated land with 1 irrigation equipment
        • Owns 5 acres or more of irrigated land for two or more crop season
        • Owning at least 7.5 acres of land or more with a t least one irrigation equipment

    4.     WEB BASED SYSTEM FOR VOLUNTARY REPORTING OF INCIDENTS

    • News: The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) has introduced a Web-based system for voluntary reporting of incidents that pose a potential threat to flight safety.
    • Details:
      • It said that to encourage voluntary safety reporting, besides e-mail and postal mode, Web-based reporting had been introduced on the eGCA platform, which made the reporting mechanism more accessible to persons engaged in aviation related activities.
      • However, the Voluntary Safety Reporting System was not a substitute for Mandatory Safety Reporting System that would continue to function.
      • As part of the state safety programme, the DGCA had voluntary safety reporting system to facilitate collection of information on actual or potential safety deficiencies that may not be captured by the mandatory safety reporting system.
      • The DGCA said that the reporting system would be non-punitive and would protect the source of the information.
      • Anyone witnessing or involved or having knowledge of an occurrence, hazard or situation which he or she believes possesses potential threat to flight safety could report the same through the system on eGCA or email or postal mode the contact details made available on the official website of the DGCA.
      • The information collected through voluntary safety reporting system would be handled in a manner so as to prevent its use for purposes other than safety and shall appropriately be safeguarded.
      • The confidentiality about the identity of the person making the report would be maintained.
      • While anonymous reports would be accepted, the person may disclose his/her identity to enable contact if any part of the report needed clarification.