geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 6th May 2022

    1.    JOG FALLS

    • News: Karnataka’s Forest Department, which was supportive of the Jog Development Projects and had recommended ‘in-principal approval’ of environmental clearance for a five-star hotel, suffered a setback with the Centre questioning whether any environmental impact study has been carried out.
    • About Jog Falls:
      • Jog Falls is a waterfall on the Sharavati river located in the Western Ghats near Sagar Taluk of Shivamogga District, Karnataka, India.
      • It is the second highest plunge waterfall in India.
      • It is a segmented waterfall which depends on rain and season becomes a plunge waterfall.
      • The falls are major attractions for tourists and is ranked 36th in the list of free-falling waterfalls, 490th in the world by list of waterfalls by total height, 128th in the list of single-drop waterfalls in the World by the waterfall database.
      • Another popular name for the beautiful Jog Falls is Gerusoppa Falls.
    • About Environmental Impact Assessment:
      • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.
      • UNEP defines Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making.
      • It aims to predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design, find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts, shape projects to suit the local environment and present the predictions and options to decision-makers.
      • By using EIA both environmental and economic benefits can be achieved, such as reduced cost and time of project implementation and design, avoided treatment/clean-up costs and impacts of laws and regulations.
      • Although legislation and practice vary around the world, the fundamental components of an EIA would necessarily involve the following stages:
      • Screening to determine which projects or developments require a full or partial impact assessment study;
      • Scoping to identify which potential impacts are relevant to assess (based on legislative requirements, international conventions, expert knowledge and public involvement), to identify alternative solutions that avoid, mitigate or compensate adverse impacts on biodiversity (including the option of not proceeding with the development, finding alternative designs or sites which avoid the impacts, incorporating safeguards in the design of the project, or providing compensation for adverse impacts), and finally to derive terms of reference for the impact assessment;
      • Assessment and evaluation of impacts and development of alternatives, to predict and identify the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, including the detailed elaboration of alternatives.
      • Reporting the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or EIA report, including an environmental management plan (EMP), and a non-technical summary for the general audience.
      • Review of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), based on the terms of reference (scoping) and public (including authority) participation.
      • Decision-making on whether to approve the project or not, and under what conditions; and
      • Monitoring, compliance, enforcement and environmental auditing. Monitor whether the predicted impacts and proposed mitigation measures occur as defined in the EMP. Verify the compliance of proponent with the EMP, to ensure that unpredicted impacts or failed mitigation measures are identified and addressed in a timely fashion.

    2.    COAL IN INDIA

    • News: The Union Coal Ministry has sought to rush through the forest diversion process for proposed opencast coal mining in Angul district of Odisha which would require the felling of more than one lakh standing trees in a reserve forest and cause significant disturbance to the elephant herds.
    • About Coal in India:
      • Coal in India has been mined since 1774, and India is the second largest producer and consumer of coal after China, mining 716 million metric tons (789 million short tons) in 2018.
      • Coal supplies over 40% of energy in India.
      • Around 30% of coal is imported. Due to high demand and poor average quality, India imports coking coal to meet the requirements of its steel plants. Dhanbad, the largest coal producing city, has been called the coal capital of India.
      • State-owned Coal India had a monopoly on coal mining between its nationalisation in 1973 and 2018.
      • Most of the coal is burned to generate electricity and most electricity is generated by coal, but coal-fired power plants have been criticised for breaking environmental laws.
      • India has the fourth largest coal reserves in the world. As of 1 April 2021, India had 352.13 billion metric tons (388.16 billion short tons) of the resource.
      • The total reserves of coal rose 2.36% over the previous year, with the discovery of an estimated 8.11 billion metric tons (8.94 billion short tons).
      • About half of India’s coal reserves are proven, 42% are indicated/probable, and 8% are inferred.
      • Coal deposits are primarily found in eastern and south-central India. Jharkhand, Odisha, and Chhattisgarh accounted for almost 70% of the total known coal reserves in India.
      • Tamil Nadu holds the highest amount of Lignite coal reserves in India.

    3.    WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME

    • News: The United Nations’ World Food Programme (WFP) has said that it is in discussions with India on procurement of wheat as several countries face food security challenges amid the Ukraine war.
    • About World Food Programme:
      • The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations.
      • It is the world’s largest humanitarian organization focused on hunger and food security, and the largest provider of school meals. Founded in 1961, it is headquartered in Rome and has offices in 80 countries.
      • As of 2020, it served 115.5 million people in 80-plus countries, the largest since 2012.
      • In addition to emergency food relief, WFP offers technical assistance and development aid, such as building capacity for emergency preparedness and response, managing supply chains and logistics, promoting social safety programs, and strengthening resilience against climate change.
      • The agency is also a major provider of direct cash assistance and medical supplies, and provides passenger services for humanitarian workers.
    • About UN Sustainable Development Goals:

    MCQS FOR PRACTICE

     

    1. Jog waterfalls are located in which state of India?
      1. Kerala
      2. Karnataka
      3. Tamil Nadu
      4. Andhra Pradesh
    2. Consider the following statements regarding Environmental Impact Assessment
    3. It is a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making.
    4. It assessments can be bypassed by the central government

    Choose the correct option from below

    1. Only I
    2. Only II
    3. Both I and II
    4. Neither I nor II
    5. Which state of India has highest coal reserves in India?
      1. Jharkhand
      2. Madhya Pradesh
      3. Odisha
      4. Tamil Nadu
    6. The UN Sustainable Development goal number 2 is
      1. No Poverty
      2. Zero Hunger
      3. Climate Action
      4. Gender Equality