Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 6th June 2022


    • News: The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) on Sunday suspended its spokesperson Nupur Sharma and the media cell head of its Delhi unit, Naveen Kumar, from the primary membership of the party following objectionable and communal statements made by them on Prophet Muhammed and Islam.
    • About Prophet Muhammad:
      • Muhammad ibn Abdullah was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.
      • According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, divinely inspired to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
      • Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.
      • When he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave and receiving his first revelation from God.
      • In 613, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that “God is One”, that complete “submission” (islām) to God is the right way of life (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
      • Muhammad’s followers were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists for 13 years. To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar.
      • In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina.
      • In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed.
      • The revelations (each known as Ayah – literally, “Sign [of God]”) that Muhammad reported receiving until his death form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim “Word of God” on which the religion is based.
      • Besides the Quran, Muhammad’s teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law.


    • News: The government on Sunday faced a growing diplomatic storm over comments made by two suspended BJP leaders, as countries in the Gulf region summoned Ambassadors and conveyed their concern about growing “extremism and hatred” the comments signified.
    • Map of West Asia:


    • News: India has achieved the target of 10% ethanol blending in petrol, five months ahead of schedule.
    • About National Biofuel Policy:
      • The “National Policy on Biofuels was notified by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in 2018.
      • The policy was notified in supersession of the National Policy on Biofuels, promulgated through the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, in 2009.
    • Categorisation:
    • The Policy categorises biofuels as
      • “Basic Biofuels” viz. First Generation (1G) bioethanol & biodiesel and “Advanced Biofuels”.
      • “Advance Biofules” viz. Second Generation (2G) ethanol, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to drop-in fuels.
      • Third Generation (3G) biofuels, bio-CNG etc. to enable extension of appropriate financial and fiscal incentives under each category.
    • Details of the policy:
      • It expands the scope of raw material for ethanol production by allowing use of sugarcane juice, sugar containing materials like sugar beet, sweet sorghum, starch containing materials like corn, cassava, damaged food grains like wheat, broken rice, rotten potatoes, unfit for human consumption for ethanol production.
      • The Policy allows use of surplus food grains for production of ethanol for blending with petrol with the approval of National Biofuel Coordination Committee.
      • With a thrust on Advanced Biofuels, the Policy indicates a viability gap funding scheme for 2G ethanol Bio refineries of Rs. 5000 crore in 6 years in addition to additional tax incentives, higher purchase price as compared to 1G biofuels.
    • Ethanol Blending Target:
      • Instead of 2030, the Centre plans to move ahead with its ethanol blending target of 20% of petrol containing ethanol by 2025-26.
      • It will promote the production of biofuels in the country, under the Make in India program, by units located in Special Economic Zones (SEZ)/ Export Oriented Units (EoUs).
    • About National Biofuel Coordination Committee (NBCC):
      • NBCC was constituted under the Chairmanship of Minister, Petroleum & Natural Gas (P&NG) to provide overall coordination, effective end-to-end implementation and monitoring of biofuel programme.
      • NBCC has members from 14 other ministries.
      • Export of Biofuels:
      • Permission will be granted for the export of biofuels in specific cases.
    • About the Generations of Biofuels:


    4.    FISHING CAT

    • News: The Chilika Lake, Asia’s largest brackish water lagoon, has 176 fishing cats, according to a census done by the Chilika Development Authority (CDA) in collaboration with the Fishing Cat Project (TFCP).
    • Details:
      • This is the world’s first population estimation of the fishing cat done outside the protected area network.
    • About the Fishing Cat:
      • The fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized wild cat of South and Southeast Asia.
      • Since 2016, it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
      • Fishing cat populations are threatened by destruction of wetlands and have declined severely over the last decade.
      • The fishing cat lives foremost in the vicinity of wetlands, along rivers, streams, oxbow lakes, in swamps, and mangroves.
      • The fishing cat is the state animal of West Bengal.
      • The fishing cat is broadly but discontinuously distributed in South and Southeast Asia.