Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 5th May 2021


    • News: As many as 86 persons from India, travelling on 11 boats, were on Tuesday caught in Sri Lankan waters as they tried to enter the island nation, possibly fleeing the raging pandemic, the Sri Lankan Navy said.
    • About Maritime Boundary:
      • A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth’s water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria. As such, it usually bounds areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources, encompassing maritime features, limits and zones.
      • Generally, a maritime boundary is delineated at a particular distance from a jurisdiction’s coastline. Although in some countries the term maritime boundary represents borders of a maritime nation that are recognized by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, maritime borders usually serve to identify the edge of international waters.
      • Maritime boundaries exist in the context of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones; however, the terminology does not encompass lake or river boundaries, which are considered within the context of land boundaries.
      • Features that affect maritime boundaries include islands and the submerged seabed of the continental shelf.
      • The zones of maritime boundaries are expressed in concentric limits surrounding coastal and feature baselines:
        • Inland waters—the zone inside the baseline.
        • Territorial sea—the zone extending 12 nm. from the baseline.
        • Contiguous zone—the area extending 24 nm. from the baseline.
        • Exclusive Economic Zone—the area extending 200 nm. from the baseline except when the space between two countries is less than 400 nm.


    • News: The Election Commission of India (ECI) on Tuesday asked the West Bengal government to extend medical support and counselling to the Returning Officer (RO) of Nandigram constituency and monitor the security protection provided to him in view of reported pressure being exerted on him.
    • About Returning Officer:
      • The returning officer of a parliamentary or assembly constituency is responsible for the conduct of elections in the parliamentary or assembly constituency concerned as per the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
      • Returning officer is the statutory authority to conduct the polling, counting process and to decide validity of ballot paper and election commission has no power to overrule him or her.
      • The Election Commission of India nominates or designates an officer of the government or a local authority as the returning officer for each of the assembly and parliamentary constituencies in consultation with the state government/union territory administration.
      • In addition, the Election Commission of India also appoints one or more assistant returning officers for each of the assembly and parliamentary constituencies to assist the returning officer in the performance of his functions in connection with the conduct of elections.


    • News: The Group of Seven wealthy democracies discussed how to form a common front towards an increasingly assertive China in the Foreign Ministers’ first in-person talks in two years.
    • About the Group of Seven:
      • The Group of Seven (G7) is an intergovernmental organization consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
      • The heads of government of the member states, as well as the representatives of the European Union, meet at the annual G7 Summit.
      • As of 2018, the G7 represents 58% of the global net wealth ($317 trillion), more than 46% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) based on nominal values, and more than 32% of the global GDP based on purchasing power parity.
      • The seven countries involved are also the largest IMF-advanced economies in the world.
      • This organization was founded to facilitate shared macroeconomic initiatives by its members in response to the collapse of the exchange rate 1971, during the time of the Nixon shock, the 1970s energy crisis and the ensuing recession.