Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 5th March 2022


    • News: India on Friday abstained on a vote at the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva as the Council decided to set up an international commission of enquiry into Russia’s actions in Ukraine.
    • About UN Human Rights Council (UNRC):
      • The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
      • The Council has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis.
      • The headquarters of the Council is in Geneva, Switzerland.
      • The Council investigates allegations of breaches of human rights in United Nations member states, and addresses thematic human rights issues such as freedom of association and assembly, freedom of expression, freedom of belief and religion, women’s rights, LGBT rights, and the rights of racial and ethnic minorities.
      • The Council was established by the United Nations General Assembly on 15 March 2006 to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR, herein CHR).
      • The Council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and engages the United Nations special procedures. The Council has been strongly criticized for including member countries that engage in human rights abuses.
      • The members of the United Nations General Assembly elect the members who occupy 47 seats of the United Nations Human Rights Council.
      • The term of each seat is three years, and no member may occupy a seat for more than two consecutive terms.
      • The seats are distributed among the United Nations regional groups as follows: 13 for Africa, 13 for Asia, six for Eastern Europe, eight for Latin America and the Caribbean (GRULAC), and seven for the Western European and Others Group (WEOG).


    • News: At least 56 people were killed and 194 wounded on Friday by a suicide bomb at a Shia mosque in the north – western Pakistan city of Peshawar.
    • About Shia – Sunni Conflict:
      • The origin of Shia–Sunni relations can be traced back to a dispute over the succession to the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a caliph of the Islamic community.
      • After the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 632, a group of Muslims, who would come to be known as the Sunnis, believed that Muhammad’s successor should be Abu Bakr whereas a second group of Muslims, who would come to be known as the Shia, believed that his successor should have been Ali.
      • The present demographic breakdown between the two denominations is difficult to assess and varies by source, but a good approximation is that 90% of the world’s Muslims are Sunni and 10% are Shia, with most Shias belonging to the Twelver tradition and the rest divided between many other groups.
      • Although all Muslim groups consider the Quran to be divine, Sunni and Shia have different opinions on hadith.


    • News: A team of scientists from the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) have discovered a new gin berry species from the Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary in Tamil Nadu.
    • About Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary:
      • Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary is a 402.4 km2 (155.4 sq mi) protected area in Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu South India declared in February 2008.
      • The area is a tiger habitat.
      • Seven rivers originate in the forest including the Thamirabarani River and Pahrali River.
      • The region is one of the most diverse wildlife forest location in India. Several new species of plants, amphibians and insects discovered here are found nowhere else, making it an endemic region.
      • The area is a wildlife corridor with high biodiversity, and in addition to tigers, is home to the threatened species: Indian bison, elephant, Indian rock python, lion-tailed macaque, mouse deer, Nilgiri tahr and sambar deer.