geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 4th September 2021

    1.   RIGHT TO PROTEST IS A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT

    • News: The right to protest and express dissent occupies a fundamental stature in a democratic polity and therefore the sole act of protesting should not be employed as a weapon to justify the incarceration of those exercising it.
    • About Article 19 of the Indian Constitution:
      • Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech etc
      • All citizens shall have the right
      • to freedom of speech and expression;
      • to assemble peaceably and without arms;
      • to form associations or unions;
      • to move freely throughout the territory of India;
      • to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India; and
      • to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business
      • Nothing in sub clause (a) of clause ( 1 ) shall affect the operation of any existing law, or prevent the State from making any law, in so far as such law imposes reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence
      • Nothing in sub clause (b) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause
      • Nothing in sub clause (c) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India or public order or morality, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause
      • Nothing in sub clauses (d) and (e) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of any of the rights conferred by the said sub clauses either in the interests of the general public or for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribe
      • Nothing in sub clause (g) of the said clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it imposes, or prevent the State from making any law imposing, in the interests of the general public, reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right conferred by the said sub clause, and, in particular, nothing in the said sub clause shall affect the operation of any existing law in so far as it relates to, or prevent the State from making any law relating to,
      • the professional or technical qualifications necessary for practising any profession or carrying on any occupation, trade or business, or
      • the carrying on by the State, or by a corporation owned or controlled by the State, of any trade, business, industry or service, whether to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens or otherwise

    2.   APPOINTMENT OF HIGH COURT JUDGES

    • News: Within days of successfully getting nine new judges appointed to the Supreme Court in one go, the top court’s Collegium, led by Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana, has, in yet another first, recommended 68 names in one stroke for elevation as judges of various High Courts.
    • About Appointment of High Court Judges:
      • Article 217:Indian Constitution’s article states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court.
    • Collegium: Evolution of the System
      • First Judges Cases (1981):
      • In this case, it was announced that the primacy of the Chief Justice of India (CJI)s recommendation on judicial appointments and transfers can be refused on logical reason basis.
      • The executive got primacy over the Judiciary for judicial appointments. This continued for the coming 12 years after that.
      • The case of Second Judges:
      • The case took place in 1993.
      • The Supreme court introduced a collegium system. It said that consultation meant concurrence in appointments.
      • After this, the CJIs individual opinion was not taken but an institutional opinion was formed after consulting two more senior-most judges of the Supreme Court.
      • The Third Judges case:
      • This happened in 1998.
      • After the President suggested, the Supreme Court expanded the collegium to a five-member body rather than 3. It included the Chief Justice of India along with 4 senior-most judges.
      • The High Court collegium is led by the Chief Justice there along with four other senior-most judges of the court.
    • Process for the appointment of Chief Justice of India:
      • It is the President of India, who appoints the CJI and the other judges in the Supreme Court.
      • It has been a practice that the exiting CJI would recommend his successor.
      • It is strictly a rule that the CJI would only be chosen on a seniority basis. This has happened after the controversy of 1970.

    3.   THAR DESERT

    • News: In a major discovery, footprints of three species of dinosaurs have been found in the Thar desert in Rajasthan’s Jaisalmer district, proving the presence of the giant reptiles in the western part of the State, which formed the seashore to the Tethys Ocean during the Mesozoic era.
    • About Thar Desert:
      • The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi) and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan. It is the world’s 20th-largest desert, and the world’s 9th-largest hot subtropical desert.
      • About 85% of the Thar Desert is in India, and about 15% is in Pakistan.
      • The Thar Desert is about 4.56% of the total geographic area of India. More than 60% of the desert lies in the Indian state of Rajasthan; the portion in India also extends into Gujarat, Punjab, and Haryana.
      • The portion in Pakistan extends into the provinces of Sindh and Punjab (the portion in the latter province is referred to as the Cholistan Desert).
      • The desert has both a very dry part (the Marusthali region in the west) and a semidesert part (in the east) that has fewer sand dunes and slightly more precipitation.
      • The northeastern part of the Thar Desert lies between the Aravalli Hills.
      • The desert stretches to Punjab and Haryana in the north, to the Great Rann of Kutch along the coast, and to the alluvial plains of the Indus River in the west and northwest.
      • Most of the desert area is covered by huge, shifting sand dunes that receive sediments from the alluvial plains and the coast.
      • The sand is highly mobile due to the strong winds that rise each year before the onset of the monsoon. The Luni River is the only river in the desert.
      • Rainfall is 100 to 500 mm (4 to 20 in) per year, almost all of it between June and September.
      • The soil of the Thar Desert remains dry for much of the year, so it is prone to wind erosion.