Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 4th October 2021


    • News: West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee won the byelection in the Bhabanipur Assembly constituency on Sunday by a record margin of 58,835 votes against her nearest rival, the Bharatiya Janata Party’s Priyanka Tibrewal.
    • About Chief Minister’s Office:
      • In the Republic of India, a chief minister is the elected head of government of each state out of the 28 states and sometimes a union territory (currently, only the UTs of Delhi and Puducherry have serving Chief Ministers).
      • According to the Constitution of India, the Governor is a state’s head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister.
      • Following elections to the State Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) in a state, the state’s governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government.
      • The governor appoints and swears in the chief minister, whose Council of Ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly.
      • Based on the Westminster system, given that he retains the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister’s term can last for the length of the assembly’s life maximum of five years.
      • There are no limits to the number of terms that the chief minister can serve
      • The Constitution of India sets the principle qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the office of the chief minister. A chief minister must be:
        • a citizen of India.
        • should be a member of the state legislature
        • of 25 years of age or more
      • An individual who is not a member of the legislature can be considered the chief minister provided they get themselves elected to the State Legislature within six months from the date of their appointment. Failing which, they would cease to be the chief minister.
      • Resignation: In the event of a Chief Minister’s resignation, which conventionally occurs after a general election or during a phase of assembly majority transition, the outgoing Chief minister holds the informal title of “caretaker” chief minister until the Governor either appoints a new chief minister or dissolves the assembly. Since the post is not constitutionally defined, the caretaker chief minister enjoys all the powers a regular chief minister, but cannot to make any major policy decisions or cabinet changes during his/her short tenure as caretaker.


    • News: Anand*, a jovial extroverted 15-year-old in Bengaluru, got a personal smartphone for the first time last year when online classes began. Within six months, he was on the phone for more than seven hours each day, not for classes but rather to binge on online games.
    • About Gaming Disorder:
      • Gaming disorder is defined in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) as a pattern of gaming behavior (“digital-gaming” or “video-gaming”) characterized by impaired control over gaming, increasing priority given to gaming over other activities to the extent that gaming takes precedence over other interests and daily activities, and continuation or escalation of gaming despite the occurrence of negative consequences.
      • For gaming disorder to be diagnosed, the behaviour pattern must be of sufficient severity to result in significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning and would normally have been evident for at least 12 months.
      • The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the basis for identification of health trends and statistics globally and the international standard for reporting diseases and health conditions. It is used by medical practitioners around the world to diagnose conditions and by researchers to categorize conditions.
      • The inclusion of a disorder in ICD is a consideration which countries take into account when planning public health strategies and monitoring trends of disorders.


    • News: At a time when the rural local bodies in nine newly constituted districts are going to the polls, some Chola-era inscriptions bear testimony to the qualifications required for members of the village administrative council.
    • Details:
      • The inscriptions of Uthiramerur in Kancheepuram district that dwells upon ‘Kudavolai’ — a system to elect members to annual committee (‘variyam’), garden committee, tank committee and other committees for 30 wards — are well-known.
      • Very little is known about the Thenneri inscriptions laying down qualifications for candidates to village administrative committees (‘perumkuri sabai’).
      • The copper plates of the Pallava period found at Kaasakudi refer to the lake as ‘Thiraiyan Eri’.
    • About Chola Government:
      • The Chola system of administration was highly organised and efficient.
      • The king was the central pivot of administration and all the authority and decisions were handed by the respected velir ministers appointed by the king.
      • The operations in field were taken care of by the ambalakkarars (local chieftains or panchayat leaders) who were in connection with the respected ministers.
      • The king was the supreme commander and a benevolent dictator. His share in the administration consisted of issuing oral commands to responsible officers when representations were made to him.
      • Every village was a self-governing unit. A number of such villages constituted a Korram or nadu or Kottam in different parts of the country. Taniyur was a large village big enough to be a Kurram by itself. A number of Kurrams constituted a Valanadu. Several Valanadus made up one Mandalam, a province. At the height of the Chola empire there were eight or nine of these provinces including Sri Lanka.


    • PANDORA PAPERS: The so-called “Pandora Papers” investigation — involving some 600 journalists from media including The Washington Post, the BBC and The Guardian — is based on the leak of some 11.9 million documents from 14 financial services companies around the world.