Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 4th March 2022


    • News: Ritual dance Agni Kandakarnan Theyyam performing at the Kaliyattam festival in Kannur, Kerala.
    • About Kaliyattam Festival:
      • Every year the festival starts with a kodiyettu usually conducted in the month of April. Theyyam is a dance festival is a most spectacular ritual in worship of the Goddess Kali.
      • Theyyam incorporates dance, mime and music and enshrines the rudiments of ancient tribal cultures which attached great importance to the worship of heroes and the spirits of ancestors.
      • Previously, only the temple priests living at upper rungs of the social ladder were privileged to hold on to the festivity as their inborn right.
      • Man assumes the form of God and dances propitiating and appeasing them and in return, the Gods assure prosperity and peace to society and is the belief behind the Theyyam performance.
      • Theyyam is performed in front of shrines, sans stage or curtains, by persons belonging to the Vannan, Malayan and other related castes. Various types of theyyams are perfomed during the course of the festival.
      • Karimanal Chamundi, Pattuvathu Bhagavathy, Vandoor Deivam, Kolathummal Kolam, Kattu Mudantha are few among them. Each event narrates a different story.
      • ‘Thudangal’ (the beginning) and ‘Thottam’ (the invocation) are the introductory rituals of the Theyyam or the Thira. The headgear and other ornamental decorations are spectacular in sheer size and appearance. The programs are performed at night in the temple premises.
      • The people of the Kadukkaram, Kakkara, Kadam Kunnu, Kumbaram, Perimboil Puravattam present their rituals at this Kavu on the 3rd night of the Kaliyattam festival. The Kavu has the unusual distinction of facing the west.
      • The Kaliyattam or festival is now conducted with the co-operation of all local people. Various cultural programs also take place during the theyyam festivals.
      • Plenty of crowds, elephants, noise, and processions. Music is an important part of the temple celebrations and the frenetic percussionists, of which there are plenty, manage to whip up quite a sound.
      • Cultural programs, including classical music and dance performances, also take place. The celebrations continue throughout the night.


    • News: After drawing flak for his controversial remarks on Maratha warrior King Shivaji, Maharashtra Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari was slammed by the ruling Congress for allegedly mocking 19th century social reformers Savitribai and Jyotirao Phule for “getting married at a young age”.
    • About Savitribai Phule:
      • Savitribai Phule (3 January 1831 – 10 March 1897) was an Indian social reformer, educationalist, and poet from Maharashtra.
      • Along with her husband, in Maharashtra, she played an important and vital role in improving women’s rights in India.
      • She is considered to be the pioneer of India’s feminist movement.
      • Savitribai and her husband founded one of the first modern Indian girls’ school in Pune, at Bhide wada in 1848.
      • She worked to abolish the discrimination and unfair treatment of people based on caste and gender. She is regarded as an important figure of the social reform movement in Maharashtra.
      • A philanthropist and an educationist, Savitribai was also a prolific Marathi writer.


    • News: The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) on Thursday issued notices to the Government of Delhi and the Delhi Development Authority (DDA), seeking detailed reports on the city’s water bodies
    • About National Human Rights Commission (NHRC):
      • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is a statutory public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993.
      • It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (PHRA).
      • The NHRC is responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the act as “Rights Relating To Life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the constitution or embodied in the international covenants and enforceable by courts in India”.
      • The Protection of Human Rights Act mandates the NHRC to perform the following:
        • Proactively or reactively inquire into violations of human rights by government of India or negligence of such violation by a public servant
        • The protection of human rights and recommend measures for their effective implementation
        • Review the factors, including acts of terrorism that inhibit the enjoyment of human rights and recommend appropriate remedial measures
        • To study treaties and other international instruments on human rights and make recommendations for their effective implementation
        • Undertake and promote research in the field of human rights
        • To visit jails and study the condition of inmates
        • Engage in human rights education among various sections of society and promote awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these rights through publications, the media, seminars and other available means
        • Encourage the efforts of NGOs and institutions that works in the field of human rights volunteerly.
        • Considering the necessity for the protection of human rights.
        • Requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office.
      • The NHRC consists of: The chairperson and five members (excluding the ex-officio members)
        • A Chairperson, who has been a Chief Justice of India or a Judge of the Supreme Court.
        • One member who is, or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court of India and one member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court.
        • Three Members, out of which at least one shall be a woman to be appointed from amongst persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights.
        • In addition, the Chairpersons of National Commissions viz., National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women , National Commission for Minorities, National Commission for Backward Classes, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights; and the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities serve as ex officio members.
        • The sitting Judge of the Supreme Court or sitting Chief Justice of any High Court can be appointed only after the consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.


    • News: The Beijing-based Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) said on Thursday it was putting on hold and reviewing all projects in Russia and Belarus.
    • About Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank:
      • The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to improve economic and social outcomes in Asia.
      • The bank currently has 105 members, including 16 prospective members from around the world.
      • The bank started operation after the agreement entered into force on 25 December 2015, after ratifications were received from 10 member states holding a total number of 50% of the initial subscriptions of the Authorized Capital Stock.
      • The starting capital of the bank was US$100 billion, equivalent to 2⁄3 of the capital of the Asian Development Bank and about half that of the World Bank.
      • The bank was proposed by China in 2013 and the initiative was launched at a ceremony in Beijing in October 2014.
      • It received the highest credit ratings from the three biggest rating agencies in the world, and is seen as a potential rival to the World Bank and IMF.