Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 4th July 2020

    1.   COVAXIN

    • News: A vaccine for COVID-19 from India is unlikely to be ready for public use by August 15 but early data on whether it is safe and the proof of its working could be available by then, say clinicians involved with the trial.
    • About Covaxin:
      • It has been developed by the company Bharat Biotech India (BBIL) in collaboration with ICMR’s National Institute of Virology (NIV).
      • It is an “inactivated” vaccine — one made by using particles of the Covid-19 virus that were killed, making them unable to infect or replicate.
      • Injecting particular doses of these particles serves to build immunity by helping the body create antibodies against the dead virus, according to BBIL.
    • Approvals:
      • A vaccine usually goes through three phases of human trials. The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation has given approvals for phase I and II trials so far. According to details from CTRI, BBIL in its application estimated phase I and II trials to take a year and three months, including at least a month for phase I alone.
    • About Drug Controller General of India:
      • Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) is a department of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization of the Government of India responsible for approval of licences of specified categories of drugs such as blood and blood products, IV fluids, vaccines, and sera in India.
      • Drug Controller General of India, comes under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
      • DCGI also sets standards for manufacturing, sales, import, and distribution of drugs in India.
      • DCGI lays down the standard and quality of manufacturing, selling, import and distribution of drugs in India:
        • Acting as appellate authority in case of any dispute regarding the quality of drugs.
        • Preparation and maintenance of national reference standard.
        • To bring about the uniformity in the enforcement of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
        • Training of Drug Analysts deputed by State Drug Control Laboratories and other Institutions
        • Analysis of Cosmetics received as survey samples from CDSCO (central drug standard control organisation)
      • With the notification of Medical Device Rules 2017 by the Government of India, DCGI will also act as Central Licensing Authority (CLA) for the medical devices.
    • About National Institute of Virology:
      • The National Institute of Virology, Pune is an Indian virology research institute, and one of the translational science cells part of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
      • It has been designated as a WHO H5 reference laboratory for South East Asia region.
      • The Virus Research Center (VRC), Pune came into existence in 1952 under the joint auspices of the ICMR and the Rockefeller Foundation, as a part of the global programme of investigations on the arthropod-borne group of viruses.
      • The National Institute of Virology (NIV) is identified today as the WHO Collaborating Center for arboviruses reference and hemorrhagic fever reference and research.
      • National Institute of Virology (NIV) is also the National Monitoring Centre for Influenza, Japanese encephalitis, Rota, Measles, Hepatitis and Coronavirus.
    • State Services fact: VG Somani is the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI).


    • News: The Forest Department will soon put in place traffic monitoring mechanism along the roads adjacent to Nagarahole National Park and criss-crossing Mysuru and Kodagu districts to ensure better compliance of forest laws by motorists and to minimise road kills.
    • About Nagarhole National Park:
      • Nagarhole National Park is a national park located in Kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka, India.
      • It is one of India’s premier Tiger Reserves along with the adjoining Bandipur Tiger Reserve and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary.
      • The park has rich forest cover, small streams, hills, valleys and waterfalls. The park has a healthy predator-prey ratio, with many tigers, Gaur, elephants, Indian leopards, and deer (Chital, Sambar, etc.).
      • The park ranges the foothills of the Western Ghats spreading down the Brahmagiri hills and south towards Kerala state.
      • The park covers 643 km2 (248 sq mi) located to the north-west of Bandipur National Park.
      • The vegetation here consists mainly of North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests with teak and rosewood predominating in the southern parts.
      • The main trees found here are the commercially important rosewood, teak, sandalwood and silver oak.
      • The Jenu Kurubas, primary inhabitants of this forest area, are a tribe in Karnataka state and their traditional practices and rituals are slowly disappearing.


    • LEAD (Learning through E-Resources Made Accessible for Delhi): It is an e-learning portal developed by the Delhi government that contains 10,000 instructional materials and course content for Classes I to XII.