Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 4th January 2022


    • News: The State Election Commission (SEC), which has been making preparations for elections to the urban local bodies, is watching the move of the Election Commission of India (ECI) on the Assembly polls in five States, in view of the recent spike in COVID-19 cases due to the Omicron variant.
    • About Election Commission of India:
      • The Election Commission of India (ECI) is an autonomous body under the ownership of Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India.
      • It is established by the Constitution of India directly to ensure free and fair elections in the country.
      • Article 324 of the Constitution provides that the power of superintendence, direction, and control of elections to parliament, state legislatures, the office of the president of India, and the office of vice-president of India shall be vested in the election commission.
      • Thus, the Election Commission is an all-India body in the sense that it is common to both the Central government and the state governments.
      • The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, State Legislative Councils and the offices of the President and Vice President of the country.
      • The Election Commission operates under the authority of Constitution per Article 324, and subsequently enacted Representation of the People Act.
      • The commission was established in 1950 and originally only had one Chief Election Commissioner. Two additional Commissioners were appointed to the commission for the first time on 16 October 1989 (on the eve of the 1989 General Election), but they had a very short tenure, ending on 1 January 1990.
      • The Chief Election Commissioner of India can be removed from their office in a manner similar to the removal of a judge of the Supreme Court of India which requires a resolution passed by the Parliament of India a two-thirds majority in both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha on the grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.
      • Other Election Commissioners can be removed by the President of India on the recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner. A Chief Election Commissioner has never been impeached in India.

    2.     ISRO LAUNCHES IN 2022

    • News: After a rather muted 2021 in terms of satellite launches, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is gearing up for a number of missions in 2022 including the launch of the first unmanned mission of Gaganyaan.
    • About Gaganyaan:
      • Gaganyaan is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft intended to be the formative spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme.
      • The spacecraft is being designed to carry three people, and a planned upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capability.
      • In its maiden crewed mission, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)’s largely autonomous 5.3 t (12,000 lb) capsule will orbit the Earth at 400 km (250 mi) altitude for up to seven days with a two or three-person crew on board. The first crewed mission was originally planned to be launched on ISRO’s GSLV Mk III in December 2021, but this has since been delayed to no earlier than 2023.
      • This Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) manufactured crew module had its first un-crewed experimental flight on 18 December 2014.
      • Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) will provide support for critical human-centric systems and technologies like space grade food, crew healthcare, radiation measurement and protection, parachutes for the safe recovery of the crew module and fire suppression system.
      • Gaganyaan crew module is a fully autonomous 5.3 t (12,000 lb) spacecraft designed to carry a 3-member crew to orbit and safely return to the Earth after a mission duration of up to seven days.
      • The crew module is equipped with two parachutes for redundancy, while one parachute is good enough for safe splashdown.
      • The space capsule will have life support and environmental control systems. It will be equipped with emergency mission abort and a Crew Escape System (CES) that can be activated during the first stage or second rocket stage burn.
      • On 22 January 2020, ISRO announced Vyommitra, a female-looking robot who will accompany the other astronauts in the mission. ISRO aims not to fly animals onboard experimental missions unlike other nations that have carried out human space flight. Instead, it will fly humanoid robots for a better understanding of what weightlessness and radiation do to the human body during long durations in space.
    • About Aditya L1:
      • Aditya or Aditya-L1 is a planned coronagraphy spacecraft to study solar atmosphere, currently being designed and developed by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and various other Indian research institutes.
      • It will be inserted in a halo orbit around the L1 point between Earth and Sun where it will study solar atmosphere, solar magnetic storms and it’s impact on environment around Earth.
      • The spacecraft will study coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, coronal magnetometry, origin and monitoring of near-UV solar radiation and continuously observe photosphere, chromosphere and corona, solar energetic particles and magnetic field of the Sun.
      • First dedicated Indian mission to observe Sun, it is planned to be launched in third quarter of 2022 aboard a PSLV-XL launch vehicle.
      • The Aditya-L1 mission will take around 109 Earth days after launch to reach the halo orbit around the L1 point, which is about 1,500,000 km (930,000 mi) from Earth.
      • Aditya-L1 will be able to provide observations of Sun’s photosphere, chromosphere and corona. In addition, an instrument will study the solar energetic particles’ flux reaching the L1 orbit, while a magnetometer payload will measure the variation in magnetic field strength at the halo orbit around L1.
    • About X – ray Polarimeter Satellite:
      • The X-ray Polarimeter Satellite (XPoSat) is a ISRO planned space observatory to study polarisation of cosmic X-rays.
      • It is planned to be launched in the second quarter of 2022 on a Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV), and to provide a service time of at least five years.
      • The telescope is being developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Raman Research Institute.
      • POLIX, a 125 kg (276 lb) instrument, is being developed by the Raman Research Institute.
      • Its science objectives are to measure:
        • the strength and the distribution of magnetic field in the sources
        • geometric anisotropies in the sources
        • their alignment with respect to the line of sight
        • the nature of the accelerator responsible for energising the electrons taking part in radiation and scattering


    • News: Five global nuclear powers pledged on Monday to prevent atomic weapons spreading and to avoid nuclear conflict, in a rare joint statement ahead of a review of a key nuclear treaty later this year.
    • About Non – Proliferation Treaty:
      • The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
      • Between 1965 and 1968, the treaty was negotiated by the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament, a United Nations-sponsored organization based in Geneva, Switzerland.
      • Opened for signature in 1968, the treaty entered into force in 1970.
      • Four UN member states have never accepted the NPT, three of which possess or are thought to possess nuclear weapons: India, Israel, and Pakistan. In addition, South Sudan, founded in 2011, has not joined.