geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 3rd January 2022

    1.     NATIONAL POPULATION REGISTER

    • News: The first phase of census and the collection of details to update the National Population Register (NPR) have been postponed at least till September.
    • Details:
      • The Registrar-General of India (RGI) had in December informed the States that the freezing of boundaries of districts, sub-districts, tehsils, talukas and police stations had been postponed till June 2022.
      • Freezing of boundary limits of administrative units, at least three months prior to the exercise, is a pre-requisite for conducting the census. Even if the RGI issues an order in June to freeze the boundaries again.
      • The first phase of Census 2021 — the Houselisting and Housing Census along with updating the NPR — was scheduled to be held between April and September 2020 but was postponed due to the pandemic.
      • The second and main phase of the decennial exercise — the population enumeration — was to be concluded by March 5, 2021.
      • There was a ban on the States to create new administrative units from January 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021.
    • About National Population Register:
      • The NPR is a list of “usual residents of the country”. According to the Home Ministry, a “usual resident of the country” is one who has been residing in a local area for at least the last six months or intends to stay in a particular location for the next six months.
      • NPR is not a citizenship enumeration drive, as it would record even a foreign national staying in a locality for more than six months. This makes NPR different from the NRC, which includes only Indian citizens while seeking to identify and exclude non-citizens.
      • The NPR is being prepared under provisions of the Citizenship Act, 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
      • It is mandatory for every “usual resident of India” to register in the NPR. Only Assam will not be included (as per a notification by the Registrar General of India in August), given the recently completed NRC in that state.
      • NPR will be conducted in conjunction with the house-listing phase, the first phase of the Census, by the Office of Registrar General of India (RGI) for Census 2021.
      • It is conducted at the local, sub-district, district, state and national levels.
      • The RGI has already begun a pilot project in 1,200 villages and 40 towns and cities through 5,218 enumeration blocks where it is collecting various data from people. The final enumeration will begin in April 2020 and end in September 2020.
      • The Citizenship Act empowers the government to compulsorily register every citizen and maintain a National Register of Indian Citizens.
      • A nationwide NRC — if undertaken — would flow out of NPR. This does not necessarily mean that an NRC must follow NPR — no such register was compiled after the previous NPR in 2010.
      • The NPR will collect both demographic data and biometric data, although for the latter it will depend upon Aadhaar.
      • In the last NPR in 2010, data were collected on 15 aspects; in the 2020 NPR, there are 21 data points. Again, three of the data points from 2010 (father’s name; mother’s name; spouse’s name) have been clubbed into one in the 2020 exercise, so that, in effect, there are eight new data points, including the contentious “date & place of birth of parents”:
        • Aadhaar Number (voluntary)
        • Mobile Number
        • Date & Place of Birth of Parents
        • Place of Last Residence
        • Passport Number (if Indian passport holder)
        • Voter ID Card Number
        • Permanent Account Number
        • Driving Licence Number
      • In the test, the RGI is seeking these details and working to update the Civil Registration System of birth and death certificates.
    • About Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India:
      • Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, founded in 1961 by Government of India Ministry of Home Affairs, for arranging, conducting and analysing the results of the demographic surveys of India including Census of India and Linguistic Survey of India.
      • The position of Registrar is usually held by a civil servant holding the rank of Joint Secretary.
      • The Indian Census is the largest single source of a variety of statistical information on different characteristics of the people of India.
      • The first census of India was conducted in the 1870s and attempted to collect data across as much of the country as was feasible.
      • The first of the decennial censuses took place in 1881.
      • Until 1961, responsibility for arranging, conducting and analysing the results of the census was exercised by a temporary administrative structure that was put in place for each census and then dismantled.

    2.     MILAN NAVAL EXERCISE

    • News: While the Navy gears up to hold its largest multilateral exercise ‘Milan’ at the end of February, there are requests from several countries for various formats of exercises, defence officials said, pointing out that Malabar is the most complex naval exercise India does with any other country.
    • About Milan Naval Exercise:
      • Milan is a multilateral naval exercise hosted by the Indian Navy. The biennial event features professional exercises and seminars, social events and sporting fixtures between participating nations.
      • Milan was first held in 1995. Apart from the Indian Navy, the navies of Indonesia, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand participated in the inaugural edition.
      • All editions of Milan had been hosted under the aegis of the Andaman and Nicobar Command and were held in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In 2020, the Navy decided to hold the next edition of Milan in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh under the Eastern Naval Command.
      • The next edition of Milan is scheduled to be held in February 2022 in Visakhapatnam, and is expected to be the largest edition of the event with 46 nations having been invited to participate.
      • All Quad nations were invited to participate which would mark the first time that Japan and the United States participate in Milan.

    3.     DRAFT NATIONAL AIR SPORTS POLICY

    • News: The government on Sunday released a draft national policy for air sports in the country that will require entities providing these services and their equipment to be registered, as well as be liable for penalties.
    • Details:
      • The policy proposes a two-tier governance structure for air sports in the country, which will include an apex governing body called the Air Sports Federation of India (ASFI) and associations for each air sport.
      • It will cover activities like aerobatics, aeromodelling, amateur-built and experimental aircraft, ballooning, drones, gliding, hang gliding, paragliding, microlighting, paramotoring, skydiving, and vintage aircraft.
      • The ASFI will be an autonomous body under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and will represent India at the Lausanne-headquartered Fédération Aéronaautique Internationale (FAI) and other global platforms related to air sports.
      • It will provide governance over various aspects of air sports, including regulation, certification, competitions, awards and penalties.
      • Each air sports association will lay down its safety standards for equipment, infrastructure, personnel and training, and specify the disciplinary actions to be taken in case of non-compliance.
      • Inability to do so may lead to penal action by the ASFI.
      • All persons and entities providing air sports services will be required to register as members of the respective air sports associations.
      • Key equipment used will also have to be registered.
      • It is proposed that popular air sports attractions in the country such as Bir Billing in Himachal Pradesh, Gangtok in Sikkim, Hadapsar in Maharashtra and Vagamon in Kerala can be declared as a “control zone” for air sports in order to ensure the safety of other manned aircraft.
      • The draft policy also aims to promote domestic design, development and manufacturing of air sports equipment under the Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan; waive import duty on equipment for a few years; as well as request the GST Council to consider rationalising the GST rate on air sports equipment to 5% or less.