News: The 1817 Paika rebellion of Odisha could not be called the first war of Independence, but considering it as a beginning of a popular uprising against the British, it would be included as a case study in the Class 8 National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) history textbook, the Union Culture Minister.
About Paika Rebellion:
The Paika Rebellion, also called the Paika Bidroha. It was an armed rebellion against Company rule in India in 1817.
The Paikas rose in rebellion under their leader Bakshi Jagabandhu and, projecting Lord Jagannath as the symbol of Odia unity, the rebellion quickly spread across most of Odisha before being put down by the Company’s forces.
It is now declared to be the first Indian armed movement to gain independence, replacing the prevailing view of the first one being the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The Paikas were the traditional militia of Odisha. They served as warriors and were charged with policing functions during peacetime.
The Paikas were organised into three ranks distinguished by their occupation and the weapons they wielded.
These were the Paharis, the bearers of shields and the khanda sword, the Banuas who led distant expeditions and used matchlocks and the Dhenkiyas – archers who also performed different duties in Odisha armies.
The Paika Rebellion was led by Bakshi Jagabandhu, the former bakshi or commander of the forces of the Raja of Khurda.
2. MAHAPARINIRVANA DIVAS
News: The Centre will “celebrate Mahaparinirvana Divas on December 6”, the 66th death anniversary of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, the Social Justice and Empowerment Ministry
In Buddhism, parinirvana is commonly used to refer to nirvana-after-death, which occurs upon the death of someone who has attained nirvana during his or her lifetime.
It implies a release from the Saṃsāra, karma and rebirth as well as the dissolution of the skandhas.
In some Mahāyāna scriptures, notably the Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra, parinirvāṇa is described as the realm of the eternal true Self of the Buddha.
In the Buddhist view, when ordinary people die, each person’s unresolved karma passes on to a new birth instantaneously; and thus the karmic inheritance is reborn in one of the six realms of samsara.
However, when a person attains nirvana, they are liberated from karmic rebirth. When such a person dies, it is the end of the cycle of rebirth, the Samsara and the Karma.
3. FACIAL RECOGNITION SYSTEM
News: After a delay of three years, come March 2022, passengers will be able to use a face scan as their boarding pass at four airports in the country.
About Facial Recognition System:
A facial recognition system is a technology capable of matching a human face from a digital image or a video frame against a database of faces, typically employed to authenticate users through ID verification services, works by pinpointing and measuring facial features from a given image.
Development began on similar systems in the 1960s, beginning as a form of computer application. Since their inception, facial recognition systems have seen wider uses in recent times on smartphones and in other forms of technology, such as robotics.
Because computerized facial recognition involves the measurement of a human’s physiological characteristics, facial recognition systems are categorized as biometrics.
Although the accuracy of facial recognition systems as a biometric technology is lower than iris recognition and fingerprint recognition, it is widely adopted due to its contactless process.
Facial recognition systems have been deployed in advanced human-computer interaction, video surveillance and automatic indexing of images.
4. BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY
News: On December 3, 37 years ago, one of the worst industrial disasters happened in India: Bhopal Gas Tradegy
About Bhopal Disaster:
The Bhopal disaster, also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy, was a gas leak incident on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. It is considered among the world’s worst industrial disasters.
Over 500,000 people were exposed to methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas. The highly toxic substance made its way into and around the small towns located near the plant.
About Methyl Isocyanate:
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3NCO. Synonyms are isocyanatomethane, methyl carbylamine and MIC.
Methyl isocyanate is an intermediate chemical in the production of carbamate pesticides (such as carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, and aldicarb). It has also been used in the production of rubbers and adhesives. As a highly toxic and irritating material, it is extremely hazardous to human health.
Methyl isocyanate is usually manufactured by the reaction of monomethylamine and phosgene. For large scale production, it is advantageous to combine these reactants at higher temperature in the gas phase.