Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 31st March 2022


    • News: With space junk posing increasing threat to Indian assets in space, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is building up its orbital debris tracking capability by deploying new radars and optical telescopes under the Network for Space Objects Tracking and Analysis (NETRA) project.
    • About Project NETRA:
      • The project will give India its own capability in space situational awareness (SSA) like the other space powers — which is used to ‘predict’ threats from debris to Indian satellites.
      • NETRA’s eventual goal is to capture the GEO, or geostationary orbit, scene at 36,000 km where communication satellites operate.
      • The initial SSA will first be for low-earth orbits or LEO which have remote-sensing spacecraft.
      • Under NETRA the ISRO plans to put up many observational facilities: connected radars, telescopes; data processing units and a control centre.
      • They can, among others, spot, track and catalogue objects as small as 10 cm, up to a range of 3,400 km and equal to a space orbit of around 2,000 km.
      • The NETRA effort would make India a part of international efforts towards tracking, warning about and mitigating space debris.
    • About Space debris:
      • Space debris (also known as space junk, space pollution, space waste, space trash, or space garbage) is defunct artificial objects in space—principally in Earth orbit—which no longer serve a useful function.
      • These include derelict spacecraft—non – functional spacecraft and abandoned launch vehicle stages—mission-related debris, and particularly numerous in Earth orbit, fragmentation debris from the breakup of derelict rocket bodies and spacecraft.
      • In addition to derelict man-made objects left in orbit, other examples of space debris include fragments from their disintegration, erosion and collisions or even paint flecks, solidified liquids expelled from spacecraft, and unburned particles from solid rocket motors.
      • Space debris represents a risk to spacecraft.
      • Space debris is typically a negative externality—it creates an external cost on others from the initial action to launch or use a spacecraft in near-Earth orbit—a cost that is typically not taken into account nor fully accounted for in the cost by the launcher or payload owner.


    • News: The regional grouping Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) conducted its maiden edition of maritime exercise, IMEX-22, at Goa and in the Arabian Sea from March 26 to 30.
    • About Indian Ocean Naval Symposium:
      • The Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) is a series of biennial meetings between the littoral states of the Indian Ocean region.
      • It provides a forum to increase maritime security cooperation,discuss regional maritime issues, and promote friendly relationships among the member states.
      • IONS is a security construct for the Indian Ocean region which is similar to the Western Pacific Naval Symposium.
      • It is a voluntary initiative among the navies and maritime security agencies of the member nations.
      • In addition to the symposiums, numerous other activities like workshops, essay competitions and lectures are also held under the umbrella of the organization.
      • The 24 member nations of the IONS are grouped into four sub-regions.


    • News: The Army version of the Medium Range Surface to Air Missile (MRSAM) under development is ready for induction, defence officials said, as the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) conducted another round of two successful flight tests.
    • About Medium Range Surface to Air Missile:
      • It is a joint development by DRDO and Israel Aerospace Industries in collaboration with the Indian industry.
      • The launches were carried out establishing the accuracy and reliability of the weapon system against targets covering the sea skimming and high altitude functionality within the envelope.


    • News: After banning the import of plastic waste in 2019, the Environment Ministry has permitted containers made of polyethylene terephthalate, as plastic waste, to be imported for processing.
    • Details:
      • The decision to roll back the ban was taken last year after representations by several industries in the business of processing waste said there was too little waste available for them in India and this was causing them financial losses.
      • An expert committee of the Environment Ministry, last December, recommended that firms which had applied for permission could import polyethylene terephthalate flakes and bottles up to 50% of their production capacity.
      • Polyethylene terephthalate is a category of plastic, and nearly 90% of the domestic supply of containers using them is already recycled.


    • News: The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, through three different orders on Wednesday, transferred the mandate of production of documentaries and short films; organisation of film festivals; and preservation of films to the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC), which functions under the Ministry.
    • About National Film Development Corporation of India:
      • The National Film Development Corporation of India (NFDC) based in Mumbai is the central agency established in 1975, to encourage high quality Indian cinema.
      • It functions in areas of film financing, production and distribution and under Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
      • The primary goal of the NFDC is to plan, promote and organise an integrated and efficient development of the Indian Film Industry and foster excellence in cinema.
      • It was established in 1975.
      • Over the years, NFDC has provided a wide range of services essential to the growth of Indian cinema especially Indian parallel cinemain the 1970s and 80s.


    • News: The Cabinet Committee on Security, which met under the Chairmanship of the Prime Ministeron Wednesday, approved procurement of 15 indigenous Light Combat Helicopters Limited Series Production at the cost of ₹3,887 crore along with infrastructure sanctions worth ₹377 crore.
    • About HAL Light Combat Helicopter:
      • The HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) is an Indian multi-role attack helicopter designed and manufactured by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).
      • The LCH has been ordered by the Indian Air Force and the Indian Army.
      • Its flight ceiling is the highest among all attack helicopters.
      • The design and development of the HAL Light Combat Helicopter (LCH) was done in-house, by the Rotary Wing Research and Design Centre (RWR&DC), an internal design office of HAL dedicated to the design of helicopters.
      • The LCH is a multirole combat helicopter, designed to perform various attack profiles, including relatively high altitude flight.
      • Equipped with a two-person tandem cockpit to accommodate a pilot and co-pilot/gunner, it has been developed to perform both the anti-infantry and anti-armour missions.
      • The LCH is furnished with a glass cockpit which accommodates an Integrated Avionics and Display System (IADS) which used an array of multifunction displays in conjunction with the onboard target acquisition and designation (TADS) system.