geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 30th November 2021

    1.       TROPICAL CYCLONES

    • News: Low pressure areas are likely to form in the Arabian Sea off the Maharashtra coast and the south Andaman Sea this week. Indications are that the weather systems will not impact Kerala much, although the India Meteorological Department (IMD) has issued heavy rainfall warnings for Gujarat and Maharashtra.
    • About Tropical Cyclones:
      • A tropical cyclone is a rapid rotating storm originating over tropical oceans from where it draws the energy to develop.
      • It has a low pressure centre and clouds spiralling towards the eyewall surrounding the “eye”, the central part of the system where the weather is normally calm and free of clouds.
      • Its diameter is typically around 200 to 500 km, but can reach 1000 km.
      • A tropical cyclone brings very violent winds, torrential rain, high waves and, in some cases, very destructive storm surges and coastal flooding.
      • The winds blow counter clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
      • Tropical cyclones above a certain strength are given names in the interests of public safety.
      • “Cyclone” refers to their winds moving in a circle, whirling round their central clear eye, with their winds blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
      • The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect.
      • Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water.
      • They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which ultimately condenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation.

    2.       KRISHNA RIVER

    • News: Telangana and Andhra Pradesh submitted in the Supreme Court on Monday that there is no information forthcoming from Karnataka for the past 14 years about how much Krishna river water it has diverted.
    • About Krishna River:
      • The Krishna River is the fourth-largest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra.
      • The river, also called Krishnaveni, is almost 1,288 kilometres (800 mi) long. It is a major source of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
      • The Krishna river originates in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar at an elevation of about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft), in the state of Maharashtra in central India.
      • The Krishna river is around 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) in length (282 kilometres (175 mi) in Maharashtra).
      • It is one of the most suitable arable basins in the world as 75.6% of the Krishna basin is under cultivation due to the availability of water.
      • The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha River, Malaprabha River, Bhima River, Tungabhadra River and Musi River.
      • The following are few other waterfalls located in the river basin:
        • Ethipothala on Chandravanka river which is the tributary of river Krishna river
        • Godchinamalaki on Markandeya river a tributary of Ghataprabha
        • Gokak on Ghataprabha
        • Mallela Theertham

    3.       COVAX

    • News: As Africa grapples with new coronavirus variant Omicron, India on Monday said it stands ready to support the affected countries in the continent including by supplying vaccines, life-saving drugs and test kits.
    • About COVAX:
      • COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access, abbreviated as COVAX, is a worldwide initiative aimed at equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines directed by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, or GAVI), the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), and the World Health Organization (WHO).
      • It is one of the three pillars of the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator, an initiative begun in April 2020 by the WHO, the European Commission, and the government of France as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
      • COVAX coordinates international resources to enable low-to-middle-income countries equitable access to COVID-19 tests, therapies, and vaccines.
      • UNICEF is the key delivery partner, leveraging its experience as the largest single vaccine buyer in the world and working on the procurement of COVID-19 vaccine doses, as well logistics, country readiness and in-country delivery.

    4.       PERSONAL DATA PROTECTION BILL

    • News: The Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) on Personal Data Protection (PDP) bill is finally ready to table its report during the winter session of the Parliament.
    • About the Bill:
      • The JPC has recommended that the bill should be called the Data Protection Bill, and its scope widened.
      • It said the bill should cover not just personal data within its purview but also non-personal data and non-personal data breaches, which includes any unauthorized acquisition, sharing, use, alteration, destruction, or loss of access to such data that compromises the confidentiality, integrity or availability of this data.
      • Accidental disclosure of non-personal data is also covered under such breaches, which means that breaches resulting from lack of proper compliance measures will also be covered by the bill.
      • The JPC is defining all data that is not personal—data that doesn’t personally identify a user— as non-personal.
      • For instance, an anonymized data set showing the preferences of users in a particular city or state can fall under non-personal data.
      • Section 35 of the Act will give the “government exclusive rights to invade our privacy whenever they want”.
      • The bill has been criticized for excluding the government and its agencies such as the CBI and Uidai from its provisions on matters of national security and public welfare.
      • The JPC has recommended that social media firms shouldn’t be allowed to function in India without setting up offices here.
      • It has also said firms that do not operate as intermediaries should be treated as publishers, who will be accountable for the content distributed on their platforms.
      • Further the JPC recommended creating an alternative payment system to SWIFT for cross-border payments, digital certification of Internet of Things (IoT) and other digital devices by the DPA, and localization of sensitive data.
      • The JPC has prescribed a phased approach to implement provisions of the bill.
      • It recommends that chairpersons and members of the Data Protection Authority (DPA) should be appointed within three months, and the DPA should start work under the Act and register data fiduciaries in six and nine months, respectively. The Act will be fully active in two years.