Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 2nd September 2021


    • News: Duty-bound Forest guards getting ready for patrolling in a boat from their flooded camp in the Pobitara Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam.
    • About Pobitara Wildlife Sanctuary:
      • Pobitara Wildlife Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra in Morigaon district in Assam, India.
      • It was declared in 1987 and covers 38.85 km2 (15.00 sq mi), providing grassland and wetland habitat for the Indian rhinoceros.
      • Pobitara Wildlife Sanctuary holds one of the largest Indian rhinoceros populations in Assam.
      • The grasslands provide habitat and food resource for the Indian rhinoceros, hosting Assam’s second largest population.
      • Other mammals occurring in the sanctuary are golden jackal, wild boar and feral water buffalo. Barking deer, Indian leopard and rhesus macaque live foremost in the hilly parts.
      • In Pobitara Wildlife Sanctuary, there are now around 102 (2018) rhinos, a 10% increase over the last six years. Pobitara has exceeded its rhino-bearing capacity and is overpopulated.


    • News: L-G Anil Baijal on Wednesday reviewed the progress of the implementation of the Jal Shakti Abhiyan and restoration and rejuvenation of waterbodies here.
    • About Jal Shakti Abhiyan:
      • The Jal Shakti Abhiyan was launched by the Ministry of Jal Shakti in 2019.
      • It is a campaign for water conservation and water security in the country through a collaborative effort of various ministries of the Government of India and state governments.
      • The focus of the campaign is on water stressed districts and blocks.
      • The important water conservation interventions are:
        • Water conservation and rainwater harvesting,
        • Renovation of traditional and other water bodies/tanks,
        • Reuse of water and recharging of structures,
        • Watershed development and
        • Intensive afforestation.
      • About Jal Jeevan Mission:
        • Jal Jeevan Mission, is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India.
        • The programme will also implement source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, such as recharge and reuse through grey water management, water conservation, rain water harvesting.
        • The Jal Jeevan Mission will be based on a community approach to water and will include extensive Information, Education and communication as a key component of the mission.
        • Jal Jeevan Mission is to assist, empower and facilitate:
          • States/ UTs in planning of participatory rural water supply strategy for ensuring potable drinking water security on long-term basis to every rural household and public institution, viz. GP building, School, Anganwadi centre, Health centre, wellness centres, etc.
          • States/ UTs for creation of water supply infrastructure so that every rural household has Functional Tap Connection (FHTC) by 2024 and water in adequate quantity of prescribed quality is made available on regular basis.
          • States/ UTs to plan for their drinking water security
          • GPs/ rural communities to plan, implement, manage, own, operate and maintain their own in-village water supply systems
          • States/ UTs to develop robust institutions having focus on service delivery and financial sustainability of the sector by promoting utility approach
          • Capacity building of the stakeholders and create awareness in community on significance of water for improvement in quality of life
          • In making provision and mobilization of financial assistance to States/ UTs for implementation of the mission.
        • The following components are supported under JJM:
          • Development of in-village piped water supply infrastructure to provide tap water connection to every rural household
          • Development of reliable drinking water sources and/ or augmentation of existing sources to provide long-term sustainability of water supply system
          • Wherever necessary, bulk water transfer, treatment plants and distribution network to cater to every rural household
          • Technological interventions for removal of contaminants where water quality is an issue
          • Retrofitting of completed and ongoing schemes to provide FHTCs at minimum service level of 55 lpcd;
          • Greywater management
          • Support activities, i.e. IEC, HRD, training, development of utilities, water quality laboratories, water quality testing & surveillance, R&D, knowledge centre, capacity building of communities, etc.
          • Any other unforeseen challenges/ issues emerging due to natural disasters/ calamities which affect the goal of FHTC to every household by 2024, as per guidelines of Ministry of Finance on Flexi Funds


    • News: Ladakh on Wednesday adopted two endangered species, snow leopard and black-necked crane, as State animal and State bird, two years after it was carved out as a separate Union Territory (UT) from the erstwhile State of J&K.
    • Details:
      • Black-necked crane, only found in Ladakh region, was the State bird of J&K before August 5, 2019.
      • Black-necked cranes, considered loyal couples, are only found in Ladakh’s Changthang region.
      • Snow leopard, whose numbers are dwindling wordwide, has been categorised as “vulnerable” in the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List.
    • About Black Necked Crane:
      • The Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a medium-sized crane in Asia that breeds on the Tibetan Plateau and remote parts of India and Bhutan.
      • It is 139 cm (55 in) long with a 235 cm (7.8 ft) wingspan, and it weighs 5.5 kg (12 lbs). It is whitish-gray, with a black head, red crown patch, black upper neck and legs, and white patch to the rear of the eye.
      • It has black primaries and secondaries. Both sexes are similar.
      • Some populations are known to make seasonal movements.
      • It is revered in Buddhist traditions and culturally protected across much of its range.
      • The black-necked crane is evaluated as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[1] It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.
    • About Snow Leopard:
      • The snow leopard (Panthera uncia), also known as the ounce, is a felid in the genus Panthera native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
      • It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because the global population is estimated to number fewer than 10,000 mature individuals and is expected to decline about 10% by 2040.
      • It is threatened by poaching and habitat destruction following infrastructural developments.
      • It inhabits alpine and subalpine zones at elevations from 3,000 to 4,500 m (9,800 to 14,800 ft), ranging from eastern Afghanistan, the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau, to southern Siberia, Mongolia and western China.
      • In the northern part of its range, it also lives at lower elevations.
      • Snow leopards become sexually mature at two to three years, and normally live for 15–18 years in the wild.


    • News: President Ram Nath Kovind will award the President’s Colour to Indian Naval Aviation at a ceremonial parade to be held at INS Hansa, Goa, on September 6.
    • Significance: The President’s Colour is the highest honour bestowed on a military unit in recognition of its exceptional service to the nation.
    • Details:
      • Naval Aviation came into being with acquisition of the first Sealand aircraft on January 13, 1951 and the commissioning of INS Garuda, the first Naval Air Station, on May 11, 1953.
      • The Navy was the first among the armed forces to be awarded the President’s Colour on May 27, 1951 by then President Rajendra Prasad.
      • The arrival of the armed Firefly aircraft in 1958 added an offensive punch and 1959 saw the commissioning of the Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS) 550, with 10 Sealand, 10 Firefly and three HT-2 aircraft.
    • About President’s Colour Award:
      • The President’s Colour Award is the highest honor that can be bestowed upon any military unit of India.
      • It is also known as ′Nishaan′ which is an emblem that will be worn by all unit officers on the left-hand sleeve of their uniform.
      • The presentation of the award or standards by the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of India (President of India) is an acknowledgement of the unit’s meritorious service.
      • While the practice of carrying the Colour into battle has stopped, the tradition of receiving, holding and parading the Colour continues even today in the Armed forces.
      • To this day, the President’s Colours is very significant, if the unit lose their colours, it is a disgrace for that unit and, if the unit captured the enemy’s colours then it is a great honour for that unit.


    • News: A contingent of 200 Army personnel will participate in the multinational Exercise ZAPAD 2021 being held at Nizhniy, Russia from September 3 to 16, the Army said on Wednesday. Of the 17 countries invited for the exercise, there are nine Participating countries and eight Observers including China and Pakistan.
    • Details:
      • ZAPAD 2021 is one of the theatre level exercises of Russian armed forces and will focus primarily on operations against terrorists
      • The NAGA Battalion group participating in the exercise will feature an all arms combined task force.
      • The exercise aims to enhance military and strategic ties amongst the participating nations while they plan and execute this exercise.


    • Umngot River: It is located in the State of Meghalaya and is located in the Jaintia hills.