geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 2nd November 2021

    1.     NET ZERO EMISSIONS

    • News: India will achieve net zero emissions latest by 2070.
    • Details:
      • Until Monday, India was the only major emitter that had not committed to a timeline to achieve net zero, or a year by which it would ensure its net carbon dioxide emissions would be zero.
      • By 2030, India will ensure 50% of its energy will be sourced from renewable sources. India also committed to reduce its carbon emissions until 2030 by a billion tonnes.
      • India will also reduce its emissions intensity per unit of GDP by less than 45%. India would also install systems to generate 500 gigawatt of renewable energy by 2030, a 50 GW increase from its existing target
      • He added that in the spirit of climate justice, rich developed countries ought to be providing at least $1 trillion in climate finance to assist developing countries and those most vulnerable.
    • About Net Zero Emissions:
      • Net zero means achieving a balance between the greenhouse gases put into the atmosphere and those taken out.
      • This state is also referred to as carbon neutral; although zero emissions and zero carbon are slightly different, as they usually mean that no emissions were produced in the first place.
      • Given the impact that carbon emissions have on our planet, you might wonder why we aren’t aiming for zero, or gross zero, rather than net zero. Gross zero would mean stopping all emissions, which isn’t realistically attainable across all sectors of our lives and industry. Even with best efforts to reduce them, there will still be some emissions.
      • Net zero looks at emissions overall, allowing for the removal of any unavoidable emissions, such as those from aviation or manufacturing. Removing greenhouse gases could be via nature, as trees take carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or through new technology or changing industrial processes.

    2.     BASIC

    • News: On the opening day of the 26th United Nations Conference of Parties (COP), Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav delivered a statement on behalf of the BASIC group of countries — Brazil, South Africa, India and China — at the U.N. Climate Change Conference under way in Glasgow.
    • Details:
      • These major developing economies are significant polluters but bear diminished responsibility for the carbon dioxide that has been pumped into the atmosphere since 1850 and also have low per capita emissions because of their significant populations.
      • These countries have therefore for many years sought to rebuff pressure from developed countries to take on firmer emission reductions.
      • a key demand of the BASIC was that the Paris Agreement Rulebook be concluded at COP26.
      • While the Paris Agreement laid out the framework for international action, the Rulebook will set this Agreement in motion by laying out the tools and processes to enable it is implemented fairly and properly.
    • About Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities:
      • The principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR-RC) outlined in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), recognises that countries (known as Parties) have different duties and abilities to address the negative impacts of climate change, but all countries have an obligation to address climate change.
      • At the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, the CBDR-RC was officially enshrined in the UNFCCC treaty on Climate Change.
      • The CBDR-RC principle also applies to certain areas such as adaptation, technology transfer, finance, and capacity building; thus by applying the CBDR-RC principle Parties can meet their UNFCCC obligations.
      • In 1992, the UNFCCC divided countries into two groups based on the country’s level of development; Annex I Parties and Non-Annex I countries.
      • Annex I countries were defined as the developed countries (members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)) in 1992 and countries undergoing the transition to a market economy (the EIT Parties), while the non Annex I countries comprised the least developed countries.

    3.     INDIA’S IMPORT AND EXPORT

    • News: India’s merchandise exports stood at $35.47 billion in October, or 35.2% higher than the pre-pandemic level of 2019 and 42.3% above the number in October 2020.
    • Details:
      • Imports grew faster to $55.37 billion, or 62.5% higher than a year ago and 45.8% over the number in October 2019.
      • Coal and gold imports more than doubled during October, rising by almost 119% and 104%, respectively, from a year earlier. Imports of vegetable oil also jumped by almost 60%.
      • The trade deficit for October more than doubled from a year earlier to $19.9 billion but was lower than the record deficit of $22.6 billion in September 2021.