Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 2nd June 2021


    • News: The India Meteorological Department (IMD) expects more rain in the monsoon months of June-September than its April estimate.
    • About Long Period Average:
      • LPA is the average rainfall received by the country as a whole during the south-west monsoon, for a 50-year period.
      • The current LPA is 89 cm, based on the average rainfall over years 1951 and 2000. This acts as a benchmark against which the rainfall in any monsoon season is measured.
      • The country is said to have received deficient rainfall if the actual rainfall falls below 90 per cent of LPA.
      • Similarly, the country is said to have received excess rainfall if the rainfall is greater than 110 per cent of LPA. It is deemed ‘normal’ when the actual rainfall received falls between 96 and 104 per cent of LPA.


    • News: President Ram Nath Kovind on Tuesday formally appointed Justice Arun Kumar Mishra as the Chairman of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC). Justice Mishra’s name was recommended by a high-powered selection panel consisting Prime Minister Narendra Modi; Union Home Minister Amit Shah; Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, Harivansh; Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla; and the Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha, Mallikarjun Kharge.
    • About National Human Rights Commission of India:
      • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is a Statutory public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993.
      • It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (PHRA).
      • The NHRC is the National Human Rights Commission of India, responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Act as “Rights Relating To Life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India”.
      • The Protection of Human Rights Act mandates the NHRC to perform the following:
        • Proactively or reactively inquire into violations of human rights by government of India or negligence of such violation by a public servant
        • the protection of human rights and recommend measures for their effective implementation
        • review the factors, including acts of terrorism that inhibit the enjoyment of human rights and recommend appropriate remedial measures
        • to study treaties and other international instruments on human rights and make recommendations for their effective implementation
        • undertake and promote research in the field of human rights
        • to visit jails and study the condition of inmates
        • engage in human rights education among various sections of society and promote awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these rights through publications, the media, seminars and other available means
        • encourage the efforts of NGOs and institutions congress to working in the field of human rights.
        • it considers the necessity for the protection of human rights.
        • requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office.
      • The NHRC consists of: The Chairman and Five members (excluding the ex-officio members)
        • A Chairperson, who has been a Chief Justice of India or a Judge of the Supreme Court.
        • One member who is, or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court of India , or, One member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court.
        • Three Members, out of which at least one shall be a woman to be appointed from amongst persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights.
        • In addition, the Chairpersons of National Commissions viz., National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women , National Commission for Minorities, National Commission for Backward Classes, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights; and the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities serve as ex officio members.
        • The sitting Judge of the Supreme Court or sitting Chief Justice of any High Court can be appointed only after the consultation with the Chief Justice of Supreme Court.
      • Section 2 Sections 3 and 4 of TPHRA lay down the rules for appointment to the NHRC. The Chairperson and members of the NHRC are appointed by the President of India, on the recommendation of a committee consisting of:
        • The Prime Minister (Chairperson)
        • The Home Minister
        • The Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha (Lower House)
        • The Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha (Upper House)
        • The Speaker of the Lok Sabha (Lower House)
        • The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (Upper House)


    • News: Hours before he retired on May 31, former Chief Secretary of West Bengal Alapan Bandyopadhyay was served a show-cause notice by the Union Home Ministry under Section 51 of the Disaster Management (DM) Act, 2005, punishable by imprisonment of up to two years or a fine or both.
    • About the Act:
      • The Disaster Management Act, 2005, (23 December 2005) No. 53 of 2005, was passed by the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India on 28 November, and the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament, on 12 December 2005.
      • It received the assent of The President of India on 23 December 2005. The Disaster Management Act, 2005 has 11 chapters and 79 sections.
      • The Act extends to the whole of India.
      • The Act provides effective management of disasters and for matters connected there with or incidental thereto.”
      • The main focus of this act is to provide the people who are affected with disasters, their life back and helping them.
      • The Act calls for the establishment of National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), with the Prime Minister of India as chairperson. The NDMA may have no more than nine members including a Vice-Chairperson. The tenure of the members of the NDMA shall be five years.
      • The NDMA is responsible for “laying down the policies, plans and guidelines for disaster management” and to ensure “timely and effective response to disaster”. Under section 6 of the Act it is responsible for laying “down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plans”.
      • All State Governments are mandated under Section 14 of the act to establish a State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA). The SDMA consists of the Chief Minister of the State, who is the Chairperson, and no more than eight members appointed by the Chief Minister.