Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 2nd December 2021


    • News: Grand opening Traditional ritual ‘Seeveli’ being performed to mark the opening of the temple festival season in central Kerala at Sree Poornathrayeesa Temple in Thripunithura.
    • About Sree Poornathrayesa Temple:
      • Sree Poornathrayesa temple is a Hindu temple situated in Tripunithura, Kochi, the capital of the former Kingdom of Cochin, Kerala, India.
      • The temple is considered among the greatest temples in Kerala and was the first among eight royal temples of the erstwhile Kochi Kingdom.
      • The deity was also considered the national deity of Cochin and protector guardian of Tripunithura. The deity in this temple is Lord Vishnu, who is in the form of Santhanagopala Murthy.
      • Lord Poornathrayeesa is known for his love of elephants. Hence more than 40 elephants participate in his Vrishchikotsavam. And most of the elephants are sent for the utsavam (festival) without a money return expected by the elephant owners as Poornathrayeesa is considered to be an elephant lover.
      • The temple is famous for its yearly utsavams or festivals. The main one is the Vrishchikoltsawam, which is conducted every year in the month of Vrishchikam (November–December), kicking off the Ulsava season in Kerala.
      • This Vrishchikolsavam is the biggest temple festival in the world[citation needed] followed by the koodalmanikyam ulsavam iringalakkuda (Thrissur pooram is not an utsavam but it is a pooram so not counted as an utsavam) and one of the biggest major festivals in the world.


    • News: A butterfly survey at the Peechi-Vazhani wildlife division has recorded a remarkable increase in the species’ numbers. Southern Birdwing, the largest butterfly in India, and Grass Jewel, the smallest, were found during the survey.
    • About Southern Birdwing:
      • Troides minos, the southern birdwing, also called Sahyadri birdwing, is a large and striking swallowtail butterfly endemic to south India.
      • With a wingspan of 140–190 mm, it is the second largest butterfly of India. It is listed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List.
      • The species is more common in the Western Ghats of South India, which is a biodiversity hotspot with a high degree of endemism in many taxa.
      • It is much sought after by collectors and is a highlight of many butterfly tours in the Western Ghats. It is the state butterfly of Karnataka, India.
      • Found up to 3,000 feet (910 m) in the Western Ghats. Found in diverse habitats from low-land evergreen forests near the coast to mixed deciduous forests, dry scrub and agricultural fields.
    • About Grass Jewel:
      • Freyeria trochylus, the grass jewel, is a small butterfly found in Africa, Arabia (United Arab Emirates, Oman, Saudi Arabia), southern Europe (Bulgaria and Greece), India and southern Asia that belongs to the lycaenids or blues family.
      • Male upperside: brown, somewhat variable in tint.
      • Specimens from dry localities are much paler than those taken in areas with a comparatively heavy rainfall.


    • News: Uttar Pradesh reported the highest number of arrests under the stringent Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA), 1967, followed by Jammu and Kashmir, and Manipur, according to data tabled by the Government in the Rajya Sabha.
    • About UAPA Act:
      • The Act provides special procedures to deal with terrorist activities, among other things.
      • Who may commit terrorism: Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it: (i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism, (ii) prepares for terrorism, (iii) promotes terrorism, or (iv) is otherwise involved in terrorism. The Bill additionally empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists on the same grounds.
      • Approval for seizure of property by NIA: Under the Act, an investigating officer is required to obtain the prior approval of the Director General of Police to seize properties that may be connected with terrorism.  The Bill adds that if the investigation is conducted by an officer of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), the approval of the Director General of NIA would be required for seizure of such property.
      • Investigation by NIA: Under the Act, investigation of cases may be conducted by officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or Assistant Commissioner of Police or above. The Bill additionally empowers the officers of the NIA, of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate cases.
      • Insertion to schedule of treaties: The Act defines terrorist acts to include acts committed within the scope of any of the treaties listed in a schedule to the Act.  The Schedule lists nine treaties, including the Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1997), and the Convention against Taking of Hostages (1979).  The Bill adds another treaty to the list.  This is the International Convention for Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005).

    4.    TROIKA OF G20

    • News: India on Wednesday joined the G20 ‘Troika’. With this move, India has started the procedure for taking over the G20 presidency next year.
    • About Troika of G20:
      • Troika refers to the top grouping within the G20 that consists of the current, previous and the incoming presidencies — Indonesia, Italy and India.
      • India will assume the G20 presidency on December 1, 2022 from Indonesia, and will convene the G20 Leaders’ Summit for the first time in India in 2023.
    • About G20:
      • The G20 or Group of Twenty is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union (EU).
      • It works to address major issues related to the global economy, such as international financial stability, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development.
      • The G20 is composed of most of the world’s largest economies, including both industrialized and developing nations, and accounts for around 90% of gross world product (GWP), 75–80% of international trade, two-thirds of the global population, and roughly half the world’s land area.
      • The G20 was founded in 1999 in response to several world economic crises. Since 2008, it has convened at least once a year, with summits involving each member’s head of government or state, finance minister, foreign minister, and other high-ranking officials; the EU is represented by the European Commission and the European Central Bank.
      • Other countries, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations are invited to attend the summits, some on a permanent basis.