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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 2nd August 2021


    • News: Abhishek Kumar, 28, of the Southern Naval Command, drowned in the Marmala waterfalls near Teekoy in Kottayam district on Sunday. He is a native of Lucknow. He was among a group of eight Navy officers who visited the waterfalls.
    • About Marmala Waterfall:
      • Marmala Waterfall is a waterfall which is located a few kilometres away from Erattupetta, in Kottayam district, Kerala, India, It is exactly  8 km from Teekoy.
      • The road from Mangalagiri to Marmala Waterfall is currently under construction.
      • One has to trek through the middle of an estate, over the slippery rocky path, in order to reach the waterfalls.
      • Marmala waterfall is about 40 meter in height, plunging into a 12-meter deep pool and feeds the River Teekoy.


    • News: Ignoring what marine biologists have warned of as a serious “developmental misstep”, the Lakshadweep administration is pressing ahead with plans to construct beach and lagoon villas on three islands of the Union Territory with its fragile coral ecosystem.
    • About Lakshadweep:
      • Lakshadweep is a union territory of India.
      • It is an archipelago of 36 islands in the Arabian sea, located 200 to 440 km (120 to 270 mi) off of the mainland’s southwestern coast.
      • The islands form the smallest union territory of India and their total surface area is just 32 km2 (12 sq mi).
      • Kavaratti serves as the capital of the Union Territory and the region comes under the jurisdiction of Kerala High Court.
      • The islands are the northernmost of the Lakshadweep–Maldives–Chagos group of islands, which are the tops of a vast undersea mountain range, the Chagos-Lakshadweep Ridge.

    3.   KONGRA LA

    • News: A hotline was established between the Indian Army at Kongra La in north Sikkim and the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) at Khamba Dzong in the Tibet Autonomous Region to further the spirit of trust and cordial relations along the border.
    • Details:
      • It is a border passing between Tibet and India at 5133 mt.


    • News: As part of the process of evolving a consensus among the three services on the reorganisation of the forces into integrated tri-service theatre commands and fine-tune the model, a table-top war-gaming exercise was held on July 22 for the first time, in which all scenarios, including a collusive threat of a two-front war from China and Pakistan, were war-gamed.
    • About Theatre Command:
      • In the simplest words, it is a unified command under which all the resources of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force are pooled, depending on the threat perception.
      • The commands could be geographical — like looking at a border with a particular country — or thematic, like a command for all maritime threats.
      • Several nations in the world have theatre commands, including the United States and China.
      • The proposed commands are:
        • A Maritime Theatre Command, which will take care of all the maritime security needs of the country on both the eastern and the western seaboards, and will include air strike assets and amphibian forces of the Army.
        • An Air Defence Command, which will be mandated with air defence across the country and beyond. The fighter jets will have reconnaissance and surveillance assets as well.
        • Two or three land-based commands are proposed. If there are two commands, there will be one each for India’s borders with China and Pakistan.
        • But there is also a proposal to have another command looking at India’s borders with Pakistan and China in Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh, given the unique territory and security needs of the country in that region.


    • News: Pakistani authorities have finalised a law to award provisional provincial status to strategically located Gilgit-Baltistan.
    • Details:
      • India has clearly conveyed to Pakistan that the entire Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, including the areas of Gilgit and Baltistan, are an integral part of the country by virtue of its fully legal and irrevocable accession.
      • India maintains the Government of Pakistan or its judiciary has no locus standi on territories illegally and forcibly occupied by it.