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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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    Current Affairs – 29th October 2021


    • News: India will emphasise climate justice and exhort developed countries to transfer the finance and technology necessary to deal with the fallout of global warming, Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav told The Hindu on the eve of his departure to Glasgow to participate in the 26th edition of the United Nations Conference of Parties (COP).
    • About United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC):
      • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established an international environmental treaty to combat “dangerous human interference with the climate system”, in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere.
      • It was signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
      • It established a Secretariat headquartered in Bonn and entered into force on 21 March 1994.
      • The treaty called for ongoing scientific research and regular meetings, negotiations, and future policy agreements designed to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
      • As of 2020, the UNFCCC has 197 signatory parties. Its supreme decision-making body, the Conference of the Parties (COP), meets annually to assess progress in dealing with climate change.
      • The treaty established different responsibilities for three categories of signatory states. These categories are developed countries, developed countries with special financial responsibilities, and developing countries.
      • Parties to the UNFCCC are classified as:
        • Annex I: There are 43 Parties to the UNFCCC listed in Annex I of the convention, including the European Union. These Parties are classified as industrialized (developed) countries and “economies in transition” (EITs). The 14 EITs are the former centrally-planned (Soviet) economies of Russia and Eastern Europe.
        • Annex II: Of the Parties listed in Annex I of the convention, 24 are also listed in Annex II of the convention, including the European Union. These Parties are made up of members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): these Parties consist of the members of the OECD in 1992, minus Turkey, plus the EU. Annex II Parties are required to provide financial and technical support to the EITs and developing countries to assist them in reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (climate change mitigation) and manage the impacts of climate change (climate change adaptation).
        • Least-developed countries (LDCs): 49 Parties are LDCs, and are given special status under the treaty in view of their limited capacity to adapt to the effects of climate change.
        • Non-Annex I: Parties to the UNFCCC not listed in Annex I of the convention are mostly low-income developing countries. Developing countries may volunteer to become Annex I countries when they are sufficiently developed.
      • About Intended Nationally Determined Contributions:
        • At the 19th session of the Conference of the Parties in Warsaw in 2013, the UNFCCC created a mechanism for Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to be submitted in the run up to the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties in Paris (COP21) in 2015. Countries were given freedom and flexibility to ensure that these climate change mitigation and adaptation plans were nationally appropriate. This flexibility, especially regarding the types of actions to be undertaken, allowed for developing countries to tailor their plans to their specific adaptation and mitigation needs, as well as towards other needs.
        • In the aftermath of COP21, these INDCs became Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) as each country ratified the Paris Agreement, unless a new NDC was submitted to the UNFCCC at the same time.


    • News: Mementos were exchanged between the Madras Regiment and Indian Naval ship, INS Mysore, at the Sri Nagesh Barracks of the Madras Regimental Centre (MRC) in Wellington.
    • About Madras Regiment:
      • The Madras Regiment is the oldest infantry regiment of the Indian Army, originating in the 1750s. The regiment took part in numerous campaigns with both the British Indian Army and the post-independence Indian Army.
      • The town of Madras was founded in 1639 and the first Fort Saint George in 1644.
      • The Madras Regiment was initially formed as the Madras European Regiment in the 1660s by the East India Company as the second company established in India.
      • The oldest battalion of the Regiment (and thus the Indian Army) was the 9th Battalion, formerly known as the Nair Brigade (Nayar Pattalam, “Nair Army”). This militia was raised in 1704 at Padmanabhapuram as body guards for the Maharajah of Travancore, and were active in the Battle of Colachel in defeating the Dutch forces.
      • After independence, the infantry battalions of the Travancore “Nair Pattalam”, Cochin and Mysore State forces were amalgamated into the Madras Regiment.
      • The 1st Battalion (former 73rd Carnatic Infantry) became the 1st Battalion of the Mechanised Infantry Regiment.


    • News: The Tamil Nadu Government is exploring the possibility of establishing a petrochemical cluster in Nagapattinam in the Cauvery delta region.
    • About Nagapattinam:
      • Nagapattinam (nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District.
      • The town came to prominence during the period of Medieval Cholas (9th–12th century CE) and served as their important port for commerce and east-bound naval expeditions.
      • The Chudamani Vihara in Nagapattinam constructed by the Srivijayan king Sri Mara Vijayattungavarman of the Sailendra dynasty with the help of Rajaraja Chola I was an important Buddhist structure in those times.
      • Nagapattinam was settled by the Portuguese and, later, the Dutch under whom it served as the capital of Dutch Coromandel from 1660 to 1781.
      • In November 1781, the town was conquered by the British East India Company.


    • News: Washington DC Key lawmakers continue to voice their support for a sanctions waiver for India for its purchase of the S-400 missile defence system from Russia.
    • About CAATSA:
      • The Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) is a United States federal law that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea, and Russia.