News: Chandrayaan-3 is likely to be launched during the third quarter of 2022, assuming normal work flow henceforth.
About Chandrayaan 3:
Chandrayaan-3 is a planned third lunar exploration mission by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
Following Chandrayaan-2, where a last-minute glitch in the soft landing guidance software led to the failure of the lander’s soft landing attempt after a successful orbital insertion, another lunar mission for demonstrating soft landing was proposed.
Chandrayaan-3 will be a mission repeat of Chandrayaan-2 but will only include a lander and rover similar to that of Chandrayaan-2.
It will not have an orbiter.
The spacecraft is planned to be launched in first half of 2022.
About Chandrayaan 2:
Chandrayaan-2 the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), after Chandrayaan-1.
It consists of a lunar orbiter, and also included the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan lunar rover, all of which were developed in India. The main scientific objective is to map and study the variations in lunar surface composition, as well as the location and abundance of lunar water.
The craft reached the Moon’s orbit on 20 August 2019 and began orbital positioning manoeuvres for the landing of the Vikram lander.
The lander and the rover were scheduled to land on the near side of the Moon, in the south polar region at a latitude of about 70° south on 6 September 2019 and conduct scientific experiments for one lunar day, which approximates to two Earth weeks.
A successful soft landing would have made India the fourth country after the Luna 9 (Soviet Union), Surveyor 1 (United States) and Chang’e 3 (China) to do so.
The primary objectives of the Chandrayaan-2 lander were to demonstrate the ability to soft-land and operate a robotic rover on the lunar surface.
The scientific goals of the orbiter are:
to study lunar topography, mineralogy, elemental abundance, the lunar exosphere, and signatures of hydroxyl and water ice
to study the water ice in the south polar region and thickness of the lunar regolith on the surface
to map the lunar surface and help to prepare 3D maps of it
The mission’s lander is called Vikram named after cosmic ray scientist Vikram Sarabhai (1919–1971), who is widely regarded as the founder of the Indian space programme.
2. LANGUAGE OF THE JUDICIARY
News: Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana on Wednesday switched to his mother tongue Telugu to pave the way for peace between a couple locked in a 20-year-old case.
About the Language of the Supreme Court:
At present the judicial system in India is well developed, integrated and uniform throughout the country.
Lawyers as well as the judges have the benefit of easy access to the views of other high courts on similar legislations and other matters of law and constitution.
Presently, the judges from one high court are transferred to other high courts seamlessly. This has given a unified structure to the Indian judicial system.
The hallmark of any robust legal system is that the law should be certain, precise and predictable and we have nearly achieved that in India. To a very great extent, we owe it to the English language, which has served as a link language for India where we have about two dozen official state languages.
Republic of India has 29 States, 25 high courts and 22 official languages recognized by the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution. Still there are more languages vying for space in the Eighth Schedule and list is bound to swell.
As per Article 348 (1) of the Constitution of India, English is the official language for all the high courts. However as per Clause (2) of Article 348, the Governor of a state, with the previous consent of President of India, can authorize use of official language of the state in proceedings before its high court.
3. DEPOSIT INSURANCE ACT
News: In a major relief to depositors of troubled banks, the Union Cabinet on Wednesday approved an amendment to the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation (DICGC) Act, under which, account holders can access up to ₹5 lakh deposits within 90 days of a bank coming under moratorium. This amendment, as announced by Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharman in a press conference today, will ensure timely support to depositors.
Under the amendment, depositors of a bank under moratorium will no longer have to wait to access their money. The Union Cabinet has decided that in 90 days depositors will get their money back.
First 45 days will go for banks in distress to hand over to the insurance corporation. Within 90 days process will be definitely completed without waiting for resolution, added FM.
All commercial banks and even branches of foreign banks operating in India will come under the purview of this legislation and this will be applicable to banks which are at present under moratorium.
Sitharaman also said that 98.3% of all deposit accounts will get covered while in terms of value of the deposits, over 50% coverage will be there by DICGC Act. “Each depositors deposit in a bank is insured up to a maximum of ₹5 lakh, for both principal and interest. Now in India with an increase in insurance amount from ₹1 lakh to ₹5 lakh is going to cover 98.3% of all deposit account,” Finance Minister said.
This clearance now, therefore, is going to give relief to all those institutions which have already come under moratorium. It is not going retrospectively back, but if your bank has already been declared under moratorium, this will cover.
Last year, the government raised insurance cover on deposit five-folds to ₹5 lakh to provide support to depositors of ailing lenders like Punjab and Maharashtra Co-operative (PMC) Bank. Following the collapse of PMC Bank, Yes Bank and Lakshmi Vilas Bank too came under stress, leading to restructuring by the regulator and the government.
As per the current provisions, the deposit insurance of up to ₹5 lakh comes into play when the licence of a bank is cancelled and the liquidation process starts. DICGC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Reserve Bank of India, provides insurance cover on bank deposits.