News: A detailed survey released on Tuesday reveals that nearly a third of India’s tigers are living outside tiger reserves and nearly 17 of the 50 reserves are approaching the peak of their capacity at sustaining their populations. India hosts 70% of the world’s tigers.
At 2,967, experts say, India may slowly be approaching its peak carrying capacity of tigers. For the first time, said a scientist associated with the survey, there was an attempt to segregate how many tigers were largely present within the reserves and how many flitted in and out and were dependent on the core reserve for sustenance. This was to guide conservation policy.
The reserves, by definition, are a “source” and suitable for nourishing a growing tiger population because of prey availability and territory. However, when they get too crowded, tigers venture out further from “sources” and form “sinks” and much of wildlife population dynamics is about understanding this source-sink relationship.
About International Tiger Day 2020:
Global Tiger Day, often called International Tiger Day, is an annual celebration to raise awareness for tiger conservation, held annually on 29 July.
It was created in 2010 at the Saint Petersburg Tiger Summit.
The goal of the day is to promote a global system for protecting the natural habitats of tigers and to raise public awareness and support for tiger conservation issues.
About Project Tiger:
Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s tenure.
Kailash Sankhala was the first director of Project Tiger.
As the Bengal Tiger is the national animal of India, this project aims to stem the dwindling population of the big cats and work to increase their numbers.
The project aims at ensuring a viable population of Bengal tigers in their natural habitats, protecting them from extinction, and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage forever represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the distribution of tigers in the country.
The project’s task force visualized these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would migrate to adjacent forests. Funds and commitment were mastered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project.
The government has set up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers and funded relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.
Project Tiger’s main aims are to:
reduce factors that lead to the depletion of tiger habitats and to mitigate them by suitable management. The damages done to the habitat shall be rectified so to facilitate the recovery of the ecosystem to the maximum possible extent.
ensure a viable tiger population for economic, scientific, cultural, aesthetic and ecological values.
The Global Tiger Initiative
The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) was launched in 2008 as a global alliance of governments, international organizations, civil society, the conservation and scientific communities and the private sector, with the aim of working together to save wild tigers from extinction.
In 2013, the scope was broadened to include Snow Leopards.
The GTI’s founding partners included the World Bank, the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the Smithsonian Institution, Save the Tiger Fund, and International Tiger Coalition (representing more than 40 non-government organizations).
The initiative is led by the 13 tiger range countries (TRCs).
2. FDI IN DEFENCE SECTOR
News: The government is going to come out with a decision on 74% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in defence and a notification is likely in the next few days, according to V.L. Kantha Rao, Additional Secretary, Department of Defence Production.
About Foreign Direct Investment:
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment made by a firm or individual in one country into business interests located in another country.
Generally, FDI takes place when an investor establishes foreign business operations or acquires foreign business assets in a foreign company.
However, FDIs are distinguished from portfolio investments in which an investor merely purchases equities of foreign-based companies.
Foreign direct investments are commonly made in open economies that offer a skilled workforce and above-average growth prospects for the investor, as opposed to tightly regulated economies. Foreign direct investment frequently involves more than just a capital investment.
It may include provisions of management or technology as well. The key feature of foreign direct investment is that it establishes either effective control of or at least substantial influence over the decision-making of a foreign business.
Foreign direct investments can be made in a variety of ways, including the opening of a subsidiary or associate company in a foreign country, acquiring a controlling interest in an existing foreign company, or by means of a merger or joint venture with a foreign company.