geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 29th April 2022

    1.    5G TELECOMMUNCATION

    • News: The government is confident of resolving issues related to high spectrum pricing with the industry.
    • About 5G Telecommunication:
      • In telecommunications, 5G is the fifth-generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began deploying worldwide in 2019, and is the planned successor to the 4G networks which provide connectivity to most current cellphones.
      • Like its predecessors, 5G networks are cellular networks, in which the service area is divided into small geographical areas called cells.
      • All 5G wireless devices in a cell are connected to the Internet and telephone network by radio waves through a local antenna in the cell.
      • The new networks have greater bandwidth than their predecessors, giving higher download speeds, eventually up to 10 gigabits per second (Gbit/s).
      • In addition to 5G being faster than existing networks, 5G has higher bandwidth and can thus connect more different devices, improving the quality of Internet services in crowded areas.
      • Due to the increased bandwidth, it is expected the networks will increasingly be used as general internet service providers (ISPs) for laptops and desktop computers, competing with existing ISPs such as cable internet, and also will make possible new applications in internet-of-things (IoT) and machine-to-machine areas.
      • Cellphones with 4G capability alone are not able to use the new networks, which require 5G-enabled wireless devices.

    2.    ARMED FORCES (SPECIAL POWERS) ACT

    • News: In a bid to completely lift the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act of 1958 from the northeast, efforts are on to improve the law-and-order situation in the region, Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
    • About Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act:
      • “Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act” (AFSPA), 1958 is an act of the Parliament of India that grants special powers to the Indian Armed Forces to maintain public order in “disturbed areas”.
      • According to the Disturbed Areas (Special Courts) Act, 1976 once declared ‘disturbed’, the area has to maintain status quo for a minimum of 6 months.
      • One such act passed on 11 September 1958 was applicable to the Naga Hills, then part of Assam.
      • In the following decades it spread, one by one, to the other Seven Sister States in India’s northeast (at present, it is in force in the States of Assam, Nagaland, Manipur {excluding Imphal Municipal Council Area}, Changlang, Longding and Tirap districts of Arunachal Pradesh, and areas falling within the jurisdiction of the eight police stations of districts in Arunachal Pradesh bordering the State of Assam).
      • The Articles in the Constitution of India empower state governments to declare a state of emergency due to one or more of the following reasons:
        • Failure of the administration and the local police to tackle local issues
        • Return of (central) security forces leads to return of miscreants/erosion of the “peace dividend”
        • The scale of unrest or instability in the state is too large for local forces to handle
      • According to the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA), in an area that is proclaimed as “disturbed”, an officer of the armed forces has powers to:
        • After giving such due warning, Fire upon or use other kinds of force even if it causes death, against the person who is acting against law or order in the disturbed area for the maintenance of public order,
        • Destroy any arms dump, hide-outs, prepared or fortified position or shelter or training camp from which armed attacks are made by the armed volunteers or armed gangs or absconders wanted for any offence.
        • To arrest without a warrant anyone who has committed cognizable offences or is reasonably suspected of having done so and may use force if needed for the arrest.
        • To enter and search any premise in order to make such arrests, or to recover any person wrongfully restrained or any arms, ammunition or explosive substances and seize it.
        • Stop and search any vehicle or vessel reasonably suspected to be carrying such person or weapons.
        • Any person arrested and taken into custody under this act shall be made present over to the officer in charge of the nearest police station with least possible delay, together with a report of the circumstances occasioning the arrest.
        • Army officers have legal immunity for their actions. There can be no prosecution, suit or any other legal proceeding against anyone acting under that law. Nor is the government’s judgment on why an area is found to be disturbed subject to judicial review.
        • Protection of persons acting in good faith under this act from prosecution, suit or other legal proceedings, except with the sanction of the Central Government, in exercise of the powers conferred by this act.

    3.    LABOUR AND EMPLOYMENT MINISTRY’S THIRD QUARTERLY EMPLOYMENT SURVEY (QES) REPORT

    • News: Over four lakh jobs were created in firms with 10 or more workers in nine selected sectors in October-December 2021, according to the Labour and Employment Ministry’s third Quarterly Employment Survey (QES) report.
    • Details:
      • The Ministry’s establishment-based survey, which covered 10,834 units in the third round, found employment had increased from 3.1 crore in July-September 2021 to 3.145 crore in the next quarter.
      • The survey covered manufacturing, construction, trade, transport, education, health, accommodation and restaurants, IT/BPOs and financial services that accounted for 85% of the employment in units with 10 or more workers.
      • The survey does not include units that were established after 2013-14.
      • The manufacturing sector accounted for 39% of the units, followed by education (22%).
      • Overall 23.55% of the units provided on-the-job training to workers, while the number was higher for health sector units (34.87%).
      • At the same time, the nine sectors reported 1.85 lakh vacancies, with 81,846 in manufacturing, 47,076 in health and 39,014 in education.
      • The report stated that 86.5% of the vacancies were “in the process of being filled up”. About 4% of the vacancies remained due to “non-availability of requisite skilled workers”.
      • The third round report of QES had shown “a rising trend in employment in organised sector”.

    4.    EIGHTH SCHEDULE OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

    • News: National Conference (NC) vice-president Omar Abdullah on Thursday said India was too diverse a country to have a national language.
    • About the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution:
      • The Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India lists the official languages of the Republic of India.
      • At the time when the Constitution was enacted, inclusion in this list meant that the language was entitled to representation on the Official Languages Commission, and that the language would be one of the bases that would be drawn upon to enrich Hindi and English, the official languages of the Union.
      • The list has since, however, acquired further significance.
      • The Government of India is now under an obligation to take measures for the development of these languages, such that “they grow rapidly in richness and become effective means of communicating modern knowledge.”
      • In addition, a candidate appearing in an examination conducted for public service is entitled to use any of these languages as the medium in which he or she answers the paper.
      • As per Articles 344(1) and 351 of the Indian Constitution, the eighth schedule includes the recognition of the following 22 languages:

     

    • Assamese
    • Bengali
    • Bodo
    • Dogri
    • Gujarati
    • Hindi
    • Kannada
    • Kashmiri
    • Konkani
    • Maithili
    • Malayalam
    • Meitei (Manipuri)
    • Marathi
    • Nepali
    • Odia
    • Punjabi
    • Sanskrit
    • Santhali
    • Sindhi
    • Tamil
    • Telugu
    • Urdu

     

    • Chronology:
      • 1950: 14 were initially included in the Constitution.
      • 1967: Sindhi was added by 21st Constitutional Amendment Act
      • 1992: Konkani, Manipuri (Meitei) and Nepali were added by 71st Constitutional Amendment Act
      • 2003: Bodo, Dogri, Maithili and Santali were added by 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act.
      • 2011: The spelling Oriya was replaced by Odia by 96th Constitutional Amendment Act.

    5.    WORLD GOLD COUNCIL

    • News: India’s gold demand declined 18% to 135.5 tonnes in the first three months of this year, mainly on account of a sharp rise in prices, acccording to the World Gold Council (WGC).
    • Details:
      • In terms of value, gold demand dropped 12% to ₹61,550 crore. It stood at ₹69,720 crore in the year-earlier period, the ‘Gold Demand Trends Q1 2022’ report of the WGC.
      • Gold prices began rising in January, increasing by 8% to ₹45,434 per 10 grams (without taxes) in the first quarter of this year, mainly due to geopolitical tensions
      • As per the report, total jewellery demand in the country during the latest March quarter fell 26% to 94.2 tonnes.
      • After rising to record levels in the fourth quarter of 2021, India’s gold jewellery demand fell by 26% y-o-y in the first quarter of this year to 94 tonnes.
      • Since 2010, barring the pandemic periods, this is only the third time the first quarter total has been below 100 tonnes.
    • About World Gold Council:
      • The World Gold Council is the market development organisation for the gold industry.
      • It works across all parts of the industry, from gold mining to investment, and their aim is to stimulate and sustain demand for gold.
      • They frequently publish research that demonstrates gold’s strength as a preserver of wealth – both for investors and countries. They also provide analysis of the industry, offering insights into the drivers of gold demand.
      • The World Gold Council is an association whose members comprise the world’s leading gold mining companies.
      • It helps to support its members to mine in a responsible way and developed the Conflict Free Gold Standard.
      • Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, they have offices in India, China, Singapore and the United States.

     

    MCQS FOR PRACTICE

    1. The Wi-Fi works at which frequency range?
      1. 5 GHz
      2. 2 GHz
      3. 5 GHz
      4. 50 GHz
    2. Entire states/UT in which Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) is still enforced?
    3. Jammu and Kashmir
    4. Arunachal Pradesh
    • Assam
    1. Tripura

    Choose the correct option

    1. I and III
    2. I and II
    3. II and IV
    4. II, III and IV
    5. Which of the following language is not part of the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution?
      1. Bodo
      2. Odia
      3. English
      4. Santhali
    6. Dogri language was inserted to the Indian Constitution’s eighth schedule by which Amendment?
      1. 21st Constitutional Amendment, 1967
      2. 71st Constitutional Amendment, 1992
      3. 92nd Constitutional Amendment, 2003
      4. 96th Constitutional Amendment, 2011
    7. The Headquarter of World Gold Council is located at?
      1. New Delhi
      2. Washington D.C.
      3. Geneva
      4. London

     

     

     

    1 C 3 C 5 D
    2 A 4 C