geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 28th September 2021

    1.    ALL INDIA QUARTERLY ESTABLISHMENT BASED EMPLOYMENT SURVEY

    • News: The All-India Quarterly Establishment-based Employment Survey, in a report released on Monday, said that the overall employment numbers had increased by 29% from the base year of 2013-14.
    • Details:
      • The report, released by Labour and Employment Minister Bhupender Yadav, covered 10,593 firms that employed more than 10 workers and were spread over nine sectors that account for 85% of the total employment in such establishments.
      • Overall, employment stood at 3.08 crore in the first quarter, up from 2.37 crore as reported in the Sixth Economic Census (2013-2014).
      • All but two sectors — trade and accommodation & restaurants — saw an increase in employment over the period.
      • The report said the IT/BPO sector had the most impressive growth (152%), followed by health (77%), transport (68%), financial services (48%), construction (42%), education (39%) and manufacturing (22%).
      • Manufacturing was found to account for 41% of the establishments, followed by education (22%) and health (8%).
      • There was a decline in employment in trade (25%) and accommodation and restaurants (13%). This could be attributed to the second wave of the pandemic that was at its peak during the survey.

    2.    RIGHT TO GOVERNMENT AID NOT FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT

    • News: The right of an institution, whether run by a majority or minority community, to receive government aid is not a fundamental right. Both have to follow the rules of the aid.
    • Details:
      • The Bench said if the government made a policy call to withdraw aid, an institution cannot question the decision as a “matter of right”.
      • An institution is free to choose to accept the grant with the conditions or go its own way.
      • The judgment came in an appeal against a decision of the Allahabad High Court to declare unconstitutional a provision of the Intermediate Education Act.
    • About Fundamental Rights:
      • The Fundamental Rights are enshrined in Part III of the Constitution (Articles 12-35).
      • Part III of the Constitution is described as the Magna Carta of India.
      • ‘Magna Carta’, the Charter of Rights issued by King John of England in 1215 was the first written document relating to the Fundamental Rights of citizens.
      • The Fundamental Rights: The Constitution of India provides for six Fundamental Rights:
        • Right to equality (Articles 14–18)
        • Right to freedom (Articles 19–22)
        • Right against exploitation (Articles 23–24)
        • Right to freedom of religion (Articles 25–28)
        • Cultural and educational rights (Articles 29–30)
        • Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32)
      • Originally the constitution also included Right to property (Article 31). However, it was deleted from the list of Fundamental Rights by the 44th Amendment Act, 1978.
      • It is made a legal right under Article 300-A in Part XII of the Constitution.
      • Provision for Laws Violating Fundamental Rights:Article 13 of the Indian constitution declares that all laws that are inconsistent with or in derogation of any of the fundamental rights shall be void.
        • This power has been conferred on the Supreme Court (Article 32) and the high courts (Article 226).
        • Further, the article declares that a constitutional amendment cannot be challenged (as it is not a law).
        • However, the Supreme Court in the Kesavananda Bharati case (1973) held that a Constitutional amendment can be challenged if it violates a fundamental right.
      • Writ Jurisdiction:A writ is a legal order given by a court of law.
        • The Supreme Court (Article 32) and the High courts (Article 226) can issue the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, certiorari and quo-warranto.
      • Features of the Fundamental Rights:
        • Protected by Constitution: Fundamental Rights, unlike ordinary legal rights, are protected and guaranteed by the constitution of the country.
        • Some of the rights are available only to the citizens while others are available to all persons whether citizens, foreigners or legal persons like corporations or companies.
        • Not Sacrosanct, Permanent, or Absolute: They are not sacrosanct or permanent and the Parliament can curtail or repeal them but only by a constitutional amendment act.
        • The rights are not absolute but qualified.
        • The state can impose reasonable restrictions on them, however, the reasonability of the restrictions is decided by the courts.
        • Rights are Justiciable:The rights are justiciable and allow persons to move the courts for their enforcement, if and when they are violated.
        • Any aggrieved person can directly go to the Supreme Court in case of violation of any fundamental right.
        • Suspension of Rights:The rights can be suspended during the operation of a National Emergency except the rights guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21.
        • Further, the six rights guaranteed by Article 19 can be suspended only when there is an external emergency war or external aggression) [and not on the ground of armed rebellion (i.e., internal emergency].
        • Restriction of Laws:Their application to the members of armed forces, paramilitary forces, police forces, intelligence agencies and analogous services can be restricted or abrogated by the Parliament (Article 33).
        • Their application can be restricted while martial law (military rule imposed under abnormal circumstances) is in force in any area.

    3.    SHAHEED – E – AZAM BHAGAT SINGH

    • News: CM Arvind Kejriwal paid homage to freedom fighters — Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru — on the birth anniversary of Shaheed-e- Azam Bhagat Singh, at the Legislative Assembly. He said Bhagat Singh made the supreme sacrifice of his life for the country and the Delhi government will continue to uphold his legacy and values.
    • About Bhagat Singh:
      • Bhagat Singh was a charismatic Indian socialist revolutionary.
      • In December 1928, Bhagat Singh and an associate, Shivaram Rajguru, both belonging to a small revolutionary group, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (also Army, or HSRA), shot dead a 21-year-old British police officer, John Saunders, in Lahore, Punjab, in what is today Pakistan, mistaking Saunders, who was still on probation, for the British senior police superintendent, James Scott, whom they had intended to assassinate.
      • They held Scott responsible for the death of a popular Indian nationalist leader Lala Lajpat Rai for having ordered a lathi (baton) charge in which Rai was injured and two weeks thereafter died of a heart attack.
      • Surfacing again in April 1929, he and another associate, Batukeshwar Dutt, set off two low-intensity homemade bombs among some unoccupied benches of the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi.
      • Awaiting trial, Singh gained public sympathy after he joined fellow defendant Jatin Das in a hunger strike, demanding better prison conditions for Indian prisoners, the strike ending in Das’s death from starvation in September 1929.
      • Singh regarded Kartar Singh Sarabha, the founding-member of the Ghadar Party as his hero. Bhagat was also inspired by Bhai Parmanand, another founding-member of the Ghadar Party.
      • Singh was attracted to anarchism and communism.
      • He was an avid reader of the teachings of Mikhail Bakunin and also read Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky.
      • Singh did not believe in the Gandhian ideology – which advocated Satyagraha and other forms of non-violent resistance, and felt that such politics would replace one set of exploiters with another.
      • From May to September 1928, Singh published a series of articles on anarchism in Kirti.
      • Singh began to question religious ideologies after witnessing the Hindu–Muslim riots that broke out after Gandhi disbanded the Non-Cooperation Movement.
      • Bhagat Singh wrote an essay entitled “Why I am an Atheist” to address the question of whether his atheism was born out of vanity.

    4.    AKASH PRIME MISSILE

    • News: The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) on Monday successfully tested a new version of the Akash surface-to-air missile Akash Prime from the Integrated Test Range at Chandipur, Odisha.
    • About Akash Prime Missile:
      • Akash Prime is equipped with an indigenous active Radio Frequency (RF) seeker for improved accuracy. Other improvements also ensure more reliable performance under low temperature environment at higher altitudes.
    • About Akash Missile:
      • Akash is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile (SAM) system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and produced by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL).
      • Surveillance and Fire control radar, tactical control and command center and missile launcher are developed by Bharat Electronics (BEL), Tata Power Strategic Engineering Division and Larsen & Toubro.
      • The Akash missile system can target aircraft up to 50–80 km (31–50 mi) away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m.
      • It has the capability to neutralise aerial targets like fighter jets, cruise missiles and air-to-surface missiles as well as ballistic missiles.
      • It is in operational service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.
      • An Akash battery comprises a single Rajendra 3D passive electronically scanned array radar and four launchers with three missiles each, all of which are interlinked.
      • Each battery can track up to 64 targets and attack up to 12 of them. The missile has a 60 kg (130 lb) high-explosive, pre-fragmented warhead with a proximity fuse.
      • The Akash system is fully mobile and capable of protecting a moving convoy of vehicles.

    5.    HEALTH ID CARD FOR EVERY INDIAN

    • News: The campaign for strengthening health facilities that had been going on for the past seven years is entering a new phase today.
    • About Digital Health Id Card:
      • The nationwide rollout of the digital Health ID coincides with National Health Authority (NHA) celebrating the third anniversary of Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB PM-JAY).
      • Currently, over one lakh unique Health IDs have been created under the National Digital Health Mission (NDHM), which was initially launched across six states and Union territories on a pilot basis on 15th August.
      • Based on the foundations laid down in the form of Jan Dhan, Aadhaar and Mobile (JAM) trinity and other digital initiatives of the government, PM-DHM will create a seamless online platform through the provision of a wide-range of data, information and infrastructure services, duly leveraging open, interoperable, standards-based digital systems while ensuring the security, confidentiality and privacy of health-related personal information.
      • This mission will create interoperability within the digital health ecosystem, similar to the role played by the Unified Payments Interface in revolutionising payments.
      • The key components of PM-DHM include a Health ID – unique 14-digit health identification number- for every citizen that will also work as their health account.
      • The national Health ID will be a repository of all health-related information of a person.
      • The health ID will enable access and exchange of longitudinal health records of citizens with their consent.
      • This health account will contain details of every test, every disease, the doctors visited, the medicines taken and the diagnosis.
      • This information will be very useful as it is portable and easily accessible even if the patient shifts to new place and visits a new doctor.
      • The Health ID is created by using a person’s basic details and mobile number or Aadhaar number.
      • Personal health records can be linked and viewed with the help of a mobile application, a Healthcare Professionals Registry (HPR), and Healthcare Facilities Registries (HFR).
      • Health ID under NDHM is free of cost and voluntary.

    6.    E – SANJEEVANI

    • News: So far, about 125 crore remote consultations had been completed through e-Sanjeevani. “This facility is connecting thousands of countrymen living in far-flung parts of the country every day with doctors of big hospitals of cities while sitting at home.”
    • About E – Sanjeevani:
      • It is a doctor to doctor telemedicine system, being implemented under the Ayushman Bharat Health and Wellness Centre (AB-HWCs) programme.
      • AB-HWCs are envisaged to be the platform for delivery of an expanded range of primary health care services closer to the communities.
      • It seeks to connect all 1,50,000 HWCs using the hub-and-spoke model by December 2022.
      • Under the model, a network will be established comprising an anchor establishment, or hub, which offers a full array of services, and will be complemented by secondary establishments, or spokes, which offer limited services, routing patients needing more intensive services to the hub for treatment.

    7.    FACTS FOR STATE SERVICES

    • Nimaben becomes first woman Speaker of Gujarat