Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 28th May 2021


    • News: Former Congress president Rahul Gandhi has urged Prime Minister Narendra Modi to withdraw the new regulations introduced by Lakshadweep Administrator Praful Khoda Patel.
    • Map:


    • News: IBF to cover streaming platforms.
    • Details:
      • The Indian Broadcasting Foundation (IBF), the apex body of broadcasters, is expanding its purview to cover digital streaming platforms and will be renamed the Indian Broadcasting and Digital Foundation (IBDF).
      • The move would bring broadcasters and OTT (over-the-top) platforms, which have seen a substantial jump in their viewership base after the pandemic, under one roof.
      • For this, the IBDF was in the process of forming a new wholly-owned subsidiary to handle all matters of digital media.
      • The IBDF would also form a self-regulatory body, the Digital Media Content Regulatory Council (DMCRC), for digital OTT platforms.
    • About Indian Broadcasting Foundation (IBF):
      • Indian Broadcasting Foundation also known as (IBF) is a unified representative body of the television broadcasters in India. The organisation was founded in the year 1999.
      • Over 250 Indian television channels are associated with it. The organisation is credited as the spokesman of India Broadcasting Industry.
      • The IBF is the parent organisation of the Broadcasting Content Complaints Council (BCCC) which was set up in the year 2011.
      • The BCCC examines content-related complaints relating to all non-news general entertainment channels in India.


    • News: A 2019 Supreme Court order used by the government to justify its new Information Technology (IT) Rules, which compel encrypted social media messaging platforms to disclose their users’ identity, also cautions the Centre from doing anything which amounts to invasion of individual privacy.
    • About Encryption Technology:
      • Encryption is the method by which information is converted into secret code that hides the information’s true meaning. The science of encrypting and decrypting information is called cryptography.
      • In computing, unencrypted data is also known as plaintext, and encrypted data is called ciphertext. The formulas used to encode and decode messages are called encryption algorithms, or ciphers.
      • To be effective, a cipher includes a variable as part of the algorithm. The variable, which is called a key, is what makes a cipher’s output unique. When an encrypted message is intercepted by an unauthorized entity, the intruder has to guess which cipher the sender used to encrypt the message, as well as what keys were used as variables. The time and difficulty of guessing this information is what makes encryption such a valuable security tool.
      • Encryption has been a longstanding way for sensitive information to be protected.  Historically, it was used by militaries and governments.  In modern times, encryption is used to protect data stored on computers and storage devices, as well as data in transit over networks.
      • Encryption plays an important role in securing many different types of information technology (IT) assets. It provides the following:
        • Confidentiality encodes the message’s content.
        • Authentication verifies the origin of a message.
        • Integrity proves the contents of a message have not been changed since it was sent.
        • Nonrepudiation prevents senders from denying they sent the encrypted message.
      • Encryption is commonly used to protect data in transit and data at rest. Every time someone uses an ATM or buys something online with a smartphone, encryption is used to protect the information being relayed. Businesses are increasingly relying on encryption to protect applications and sensitive information from reputational damage when there is a data breach.
      • There are three major components to any encryption system: the data, the encryption engine and the key management. In laptop encryption, all three components are running or stored in the same place: on the laptop.
      • In application architectures, however, the three components usually run or are stored in separate places to reduce the chance that compromise of any single component could result in compromise of the entire system.

    4.   BRICS

    • News: Amidst continuing tensions between India and China at the Line of Actual Control, External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar and Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi will participate on Tuesday in a virtual BRICS Ministerial meeting chaired by India, along with the Foreign Ministers of Brazil, Russia and South Africa.
    • About BRICS Summit:
      • BRICS is the acronym coined to associate five major emerging economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The BRICS members are known for their significant influence on regional affairs.
      • Since 2009, the governments of the BRICS states have met annually at formal summits. Russia hosted the most recent 12th BRICS summit on 17 November 2020 virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
      • Originally the first four were grouped as “BRIC” (or “the BRICs”) before the induction of South Africa in 2010.
      • The BRICS have a combined area of 39,746,220 km2 (15,346,101.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 3.21 billion, or about 26.656% of the world land surface and 41.53% of the world population.
      • Four out of five members are among the world’s ten largest countries by population and by area, except for South Africa, the twenty-fourth in both.
      • Members of G20, as of 2018, these five states had a combined nominal GDP of US$19.6 trillion, about 23.2% of the gross world product, a combined GDP (PPP) of around US$40.55 trillion (32% of World’s GDP PPP), and an estimated US$4.46 trillion in combined foreign reserves.
      • The BRICS have received both praise and criticism from numerous commentators.
      • Bilateral relations among BRICS states are conducted mainly based on non-interference, equality, and mutual benefit.
      • The existence of the BRICS grouping does not signify a formal or informal alliance; there are multiple economic, territorial, and political disputes between the five governments.