News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday said every Indian should be proud of Tamil, the world’s oldest living language.
About Classical Languages:
Currently there are six languages that enjoy the ‘Classical’ status in India:
Tamil (declared in 2004), Sanskrit (2005), Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013), and Odia (2014).
All the Classical Languages are listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution.
The Ministry of Culture provides the guidelines regarding Classical languages.
Guidelines for declaring a language as ‘Classical’ are:
High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years;
A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers;
The literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community;
The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its off shoots.
Once a language is notified as a Classical language, the Human Resource and Development Ministry provides certain benefits to promote it:
Two major annual international awards for scholars of eminence in classical Indian languages
A Centre of Excellence for studies in Classical Languages is set up
The University Grants Commission is requested to create, to start with at least in the Central Universities, a certain number of Professional Chairs for the Classical Languages so declared.
2. HAL AMCA
News: India and France are close to concluding a deal, likely in the next couple of months, for the joint development of a 125KN engine for the indigenous fifth generation Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) under development, according to defence officials.
About HAL AMCA:
The Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) is an Indian programme to develop fifth generation fighter aircraft for the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy which will also include sixth generation niche technologies.
The design of the aircraft is carried out by Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), an aircraft design and development agency constituted under Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
It is expected to be produced by a public-private joint venture between the DRDO, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), and an Indian private company.
The programme has an aim to start production by 2028.
The development cost is estimated to be around ₹15,000 crore.
AMCA will be a single-seat, twin-engine, stealth all-weather swing-role fighter aircraft.
The AMCA design is optimised for low radar cross section and supercruise capability.
3. SWIFT SYSTEM
News: The United States and European nations agreed on Saturday to impose the most potentially crippling financial penalties yet on Russia over its unrelenting invasion of Ukraine, going after the central bank reserves that underpin the Russian economy and severing some Russian banks from a vital global financial network.
About Swift System:
SWIFT stands for the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication.
Simply put, SWIFT is a global payments system, which is used by more than 11,000 financial institutions and companies around the world, across over 200 countries.
Think of SWIFT as Gmail for banks. Or like SMS, but for money transfers. In short, SWIFT is a messaging system for money transfers.
Banks and financial institutions use the SWIFT payment system to securely and reliably send and receive money transfer instructions.
Under the SWIFT system, each organisation is assigned a 8 or 11 character unique code.
The wide coverage of SWIFT – covering over 11,000 institutions in more than 200 countries around the world – makes it an almost-universally accepted system. It counts central banks of countries like the US, UK, Germany, France, Japan, India, China, Singapore and others among its list of overseers.