geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 28th August 2021

    1.    DEEPAR BEEL

    • News: On August 25, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change notified the eco-sensitive zone of Deepar Beel Wildlife Sanctuary on the southwestern edge of Guwahati.
    • Details:
      • Deepar Beel is one of the largest freshwater lakes in Assam and the State’s only Ramsar Site, besides being an Important Bird Area.
      • The zonation should help, but Deepar Beel’s water has become toxic and lost many of its aquatic plants that elephants would feed on. The wetlands can breathe easier only if the railway track is diverted.
    • About Dipor Bil:
      • Dipor Bil, also spelt Deepor Beel is located to the south-west of Guwahati city, in Kamrup Metropolitan district of Assam, India.
      • It is a permanent freshwater lake, in a former channel of the Brahmaputra River, to the south of the main river.
      • It is also called a wetland under the Ramsar Convention which has listed the lake in November 2002, as a Ramsar Site for undertaking conservation measures on the basis of its biological and environmental importance.
      • Considered one of the largest beels in the Brahmaputra valley of Lower Assam, it is categorised as representative of the wetland type under the Burma monsoon forest biogeographic region.

    2.    BLACK HOLE STRATEGY

    • News: A rare merging of three supermassive black holes has been spotted by a team of astrophysicists from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), working with Professor Francoise Combes from the Paris Observatory. This is only the third time such an event has been observed and the findings were published as a letter in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics in June.
    • About Black Hole:
      • A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it.
      • The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole.
      • The boundary of no escape is called the event horizon. Although it has an enormous effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, according to general relativity it has no locally detectable features.
      • In many ways, a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light.
      • Moreover, quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass.
      • This temperature is on the order of billionths of a kelvin for black holes of stellar mass, making it essentially impossible to observe directly.
      • Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace.

    3.    RISHIGANGA

    • News: Six months after a devastating flood of rock, ice and debris gushed down the Rishiganga river in Uttarakhand and killed at least 200 and severely damaged two hydropower projects, three Union Ministries, which initially had dissenting views on the future of hydroelectric power projects, have come to a consensus.
    • About Rishiganga:
      • Rishiganga or Rishi Ganga is a river in the Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, India.
      • It springs from the Uttari Nanda Devi Glacier on the Nanda Devi mountain.
      • It is also fed from the Dakshini Nanda Devi Glacier. Continuing through the Nanda Devi National Park, it flows into the Dhauliganga River near the village Rini.
    • About Nanda Devi National Park:
      • The Nanda Devi National Park or Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, established in 1982 is a national park situated around the peak of Nanda Devi (7816 m) in Chamoli Garhwal district of Uttarakhand, in northern India.
      • The entire park lies at an elevation of more than 3,500 m (11,500 ft) above mean sea level.
      • The National Park was inscribed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988.
      • It was later expanded and renamed as Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks in 2005.
      • Common larger mammals are Himalayan musk deer, mainland serow and Himalayan tahr.
      • Goral are not found within, but in the vicinity of the park.
      • Carnivores are represented by snow leopard, Himalayan black bear and perhaps also brown bear. Langurs are found within the park, whereas rhesus macaque are known to occur in the neighboring areas of the park.
    • About Tehri Dam:
      • Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India and fourth highest dam in the world. It is around 260.5 metre high and 592 metre long.
      • It is part of the Tehri Dam & Hydro Power Project (the multi-purpose river valley project) taken up for construction on River Bhagirathi to tap its vast potential for irrigation and hydro-electric purposes. It is located in the Tehri district of Uttarakhand.
      • Tehri dam is an earth and rock fill dam.

    4.    NON – FUNGIBLE TOKEN

    • News: Pushing the NFT story in the country is the collab between WazirX and Kian Casa Gallery. Embers 2021, the exhibition at the Pune gallery, not only celebrates “the fire in 21st century women” but is also the India’s first-ever AR (augmented reality) + NFT Art-Tech exhibition.
    • About Non – Fungible Token:
      • A non-fungible token (NFT) is a unit of data stored on a digital ledger, called a blockchain, that certifies a digital asset to be unique and therefore not interchangeable.
      • NFTs can be used to represent items such as photos, videos, audio, and other types of digital files.
      • Access to any copy of the original file, however, is not restricted to the buyer of the NFT.
      • While copies of these digital items are available for anyone to obtain, NFTs are tracked on blockchains to provide the owner with a proof of ownership that is separate from copyright.
      • An NFT is a unit of data stored on a digital ledger, called a blockchain, which can be sold and traded. The NFT can be associated with a particular digital or physical asset (such as a file or a physical object) and a license to use the asset for a specified purpose.
      • NFTs (and the associated license to use, copy or display the underlying asset) can be traded and sold on digital markets.
      • The unique identity and ownership of an NFT is verifiable via the blockchain ledger.
      • Ownership of the NFT is often associated with a license to use the underlying digital asset, but generally does not confer copyright to the buyer: some agreements only grant a license for personal, non-commercial use, while other licenses also allow commercial use of the underlying digital asset.