geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 28th April 2022

    1.   AMARAVATI SCHOOL OF ART

    • News: The Archaeology and Museums Department of Andhra Pradesh has built a museum in Eluru, where nearly 400 artefacts dating back to the early historic period (from 6th Century BC to 4th Century BC) to the 19th Century AD.
    • About Amaravati School of Art:
      • The Amaravati school of art developed between the lower valleys of the Krishna and Godavari rivers in Andhra Pradesh. A distinct type of art originated and flourished at Amaravati for around six centuries between 200 and 100 BCE. The ‘narrative art’ is a prominent feature of the Amaravati school. One medallion, for example, displays an entire story about the Buddha taming an elephant.
      • The Amaravati style of art developed and flourished in India for approximately six centuries, from 200 to 100 BC, with no outside influences.
      • This school of sculpture flourished in the second century BC, especially in the second half.
      • Images of a more secular nature were also created. These take the shape of female images, trees, animals, and birds, among other things. Satavahanas were the first patrons of this school.
      • The ‘narrative art’ is a prominent feature of the Amaravati school
      • The medallions were carved in such a way that they depicted a natural occurrence.
      • One medallion, for example, displays an entire story about the Buddha taming an elephant.
      • The Amravati stupas are made of striking white marble.
      • In human, animal, and floral forms, Amaravati sculptures have a sense of movement and vitality, as well as profound and serene naturalism.
      • Amravati, Nagarjunikonda, Goli, Ghantasala, and Vengi are notable locales where this style flourished.
      • There is a symbolic picture of Buddha’s life, yet he is also personified in two or three places.
      • The Amaravati Stupa, like the Sanchi Stupa, has a pradakshina patha contained by a vedika on which various narrative stories from the life of
      • Buddha and bodhisattva predominate, but its structural anatomy is more intricate.
      • This style included both religious and secular images.
      • Pallava and Chola buildings evolved from this style later.
    • Significance:
      • Influence – Indigenous, with no foreign influence
      • Patrons –The Satavahanas were the first to patronize it, followed by the Ikshvakus and other groups (feudatories, administrators, and merchants).
        • The Amaravati school of art developed between the lower valleys of the Krishna and Godavari rivers in Andhra Pradesh.
      • Theme –In human, animal, and floral forms, Amaravati sculptures have a sense of movement and vitality, as well as profound and serene naturalism.
        • This style included both religious and secular images.
        • Pallava and Chola buildings evolved from this style later.
      • Features of the sculpture –The ‘narrative art’ is a prominent feature of the Amaravati school.
        • The medallions were carved in such a way that they depicted a natural occurrence.
        • One medallion, for example, displays an entire story about the Buddha taming an elephant.
      • Type of sandstone –The Amravati stupas are made of striking white marble.
        • Amravati, Nagarjunikonda, Goli, Ghantasala, and Vengi are notable locales where this style flourished.
        • There is a symbolic picture of Buddha’s life, yet he is also personified in two or three places.
      • Other features –The Amaravati Stupa, like the Sanchi Stupa, has a pradakshina patha contained by a vedika on which various narrative stories from the life of Buddha and bodhisattva predominate, but its structural anatomy is more intricate.

     

    2.   SMALL SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (SSLV)

    • News: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is hoping to have all three development flights planned for its ‘baby rocket’ — the Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) — in 2022 itself.
    • Details:
      • All three missions, to be carried out from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, would carry payloads.
      • Designed as a ‘launch on demand’ and a cheaper alternative for placing small payloads in orbit, it would have multiple mounting options for nano, micro and small satellites, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC).
      • Physically, the SSLV is a three-stage rocket with a height of 34 metres and lift-off weight of 120 tonnes. By comparison, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) — ISRO’s ‘reliable workhorse’ — stands 44 metres tall, has four stages and has a lift-off mass of 320 tonnes for its ‘XL’ variant.
      • All three stages of the SSLV will be solid propulsion stages.
      • Being developed with private participation, the SSLV will be able to place 500 kg payloads in low-earth orbit.
      • ISRO had performed ground tests on a new solid booster stage for its new launch vehicle.
      • This includes the cost of development, qualification of vehicle systems and flight demonstration through the three planned development flights labelled SSLV-D1, SSLV-D2 and SSLV-D3.
      • Hardware and structures for the project — solid motor cases, nozzle sub-systems and inter-stage structures included — will be realised through private industry participation.

    3.   LABOUR CODES

    • News: The four labour codes, which were passed by Parliament in 2019 and 2020, would be implemented soon, with only a handful of the States left to draft their own rules under the codes.
    • Details:
      • He said all but three or four States had drafted their rules under the codes.
      • As many as 29 Central Acts on wages, social security, occupational safety and industrial relations have been subsumed into four codes.
      • The four labour codes are the Code on Wages, 2019; the Industrial Relations Code, 2020; the Code on Social Security, 2020; and the Occupational Safety, Health & Working Conditions Code, 2020
      • The new laws are in tune with the changing labour market trends and at the same time accommodate the minimum wage requirement and welfare needs of the unorganised sector workers, including the self-employed and migrant workers, within the framework of legislation.
      • Now states are required to frame regulations on their part as labour is a concurrent subject.
      • Labour is in the Concurrent List of the Constitution and under the Labour Codes, rules are required to be framed by the central government as well as by the state governments.
      • Under the Codes, the power to make rules has been entrusted to the central government, state government and appropriate government and there is a requirement for publication of rules in their official gazette for a period of 30 or 45 days for public consultation.
      • The minister also said that the government is working to provide social security to the entire workforce in the country and that is why e-Shram portal or national database of informal workers is being created.

    4.   UNIVERSAL SERVICE OBLIGATION FUND

    • News: The Union Cabinet on Wednesday approved a Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) project for upgrading 2G mobile services to 4G at security sites in LWE (Left Wing Extremism) areas at an estimated cost of about ₹2,426.39 crore.
    • About Universal Service Obligation Fund:
      • Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) is the pool of funds generated by 5% Universal Service Levy that is charged upon all the telecom fund operators on their Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR).
      • This fund is deposited in the Consolidated Fund of India and is dispatched on the approval of the Indian Parliament.
      • The USOF comes under the Indian Telegraph Act 1885.
      • The act was amended in 2003 to give statutory status to the fund. The Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications governs the fund and related provisions.
      • The aim of USOF is to provide a balance between the provision of Universal Service to all uncovered areas, including the rural areas.
      • The government of India kept Universal Service as an objective in its New Telecom Policy (NTP) of 1999. Universal Service stands for universal, interdependent and intercommunicating, affording the opportunity for any subscriber to any exchange to communicate with any other subscriber of any other exchange.
      • It was through NTP 1999 that it was envisaged to levy Universal Access Levy (UAL) upon the telecom licensees’ revenue in consultation with the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI).

     

     

     

     

     

     

    MCQS FOR PRACTICE

     

    1. Consider following statements regarding Amravati School of Art and Choose the correct option
    2. Satavahanas were the first patrons of this school.
    3. It was completely indigenous with no foreign influence
    • It predominantly used White marble in its art form
    1. I and II
    2. II and III
    3. I and III
    4. All are correct
    5. Consider the following statements regarding the Art schools of Ancient India and choose the incorrect statement
    6. Gandhara school used Red Sandstone
    7. No beard or Moustache features were made in Mathura school of Art
    • White Marble was used in Amravati school
    1. Only I
    2. Only II
    3. I and II
    4. II and III
    5. The Small Satellite Launch Vehicle of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) can carry upto what size of payloads?
    6. 500 KG
    7. 1000 KG
    8. 850 KG
    9. 1500 KG
    10. Universal Service Obligation Fund charges what percentage of levy on all telecom operators of their Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR)?
    11. 2%
    12. 5%
    13. 8%
    14. 10%

     

     

    1 D 3 A
    2 A 4 B