geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 27th October 2021

    1.     PEGASUS SPYWARE

    • News: A Supreme Court Bench led by Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana is scheduled to pronounce its decision on Wednesday in pleas to form an independent committee to probe reports that the government used Israel-based Pegasus software to spy on citizens.
    • About Pegasus Spyware:
      • Pegasus is spyware developed by the Israeli cyberarms firm NSO Group that can be covertly installed on mobile phones (and other devices) running most versions of iOS and Android.
      • The 2021 Project Pegasus revelations suggest that the current Pegasus software can exploit all recent iOS versions up to iOS 14.6.
      • As of 2016, Pegasus was capable of reading text messages, tracking calls, collecting passwords, location tracking, accessing the target device’s microphone and camera, and harvesting information from apps.
    • About Zero Click Attack:
      • A zero-click attack helps spyware like Pegasus gain control over a device without human interaction or human error.
      • So, all awareness about how to avoid a phishing attack or which links not to click are pointless if the target is the system itself.
      • Most of these attacks exploit software which receive data even before it can determine whether what is coming in is trustworthy or not, like an email client.

    2.     NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION

    • News: The National Human Rights Commission said that it had issued a show-cause notice to the Union Labour and Employment Secretary in the case of a COVID-19 patient who “died due to medical negligence” at an Employees’ State Insurance (ESI) hospital.
    • About National Human Rights Commission of India:
      • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is a Statutory public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993.
      • It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (PHRA).
      • The NHRC is the National Human Rights Commission of India, responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Act as “Rights Relating To Life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India”.
      • The Protection of Human Rights Act mandates the NHRC to perform the following:
        • Proactively or reactively inquire into violations of human rights by government of India or negligence of such violation by a public servant
        • the protection of human rights and recommend measures for their effective implementation
        • review the factors, including acts of terrorism that inhibit the enjoyment of human rights and recommend appropriate remedial measures
        • to study treaties and other international instruments on human rights and make recommendations for their effective implementation
        • undertake and promote research in the field of human rights
        • to visit jails and study the condition of inmates
        • engage in human rights education among various sections of society and promote awareness of the safeguards available for the protection of these rights through publications, the media, seminars and other available means
        • encourage the efforts of NGOs and institutions that works in the field of human rights voluntarily.
        • Considering the necessity for the protection of human rights.
        • requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office.
      • The NHRC consists of: The Chairperson and Four members (excluding the ex-officio members)
        • A Chairperson, who has been a Chief Justice of India or a Judge of the Supreme Court.
        • One member who is, or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court of India , or, One member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court.
        • Three Members, out of which at least one shall be a woman to be appointed from amongst persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights.
        • In addition, the Chairpersons of National Commissions viz., National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women , National Commission for Minorities, National Commission for Backward Classes, National Commission for Protection of Child Rights; and the Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities serve as ex officio members.
      • The Chairperson and members of the NHRC are appointed by the President of India, on the recommendation of a committee consisting of:
        • The Prime Minister (Chairperson)
        • The Home Minister
        • The Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha (Lower House)
        • The Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha (Upper House)
        • The Speaker of the Lok Sabha (Lower House)
        • The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (Upper House)

    3.     TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR DRONES

    • News: The Ministry of Civil Aviation has notified a traffic management policy framework for drones, which envisages private, third-party service providers for ensuring safe operations.
    • Details:
      • Under the framework, these Unmanned Traffic Management Service Providers (UTMSP) will extend automated, algorithm-driven software services instead of voice communication as in the traditional Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems.
      • They will primarily be responsible for segregating and separating a drone from other drones and manned aircraft in the airspace below 1,000 feet in the country.
      • The traffic management providers will be assisted by Supplementary Service Providers (SSPs), who will maintain data about terrain, weather, location of manned aircraft and provide services such as insurance, data analytics and drone fleet management.
      • The drone traffic management policy also requires integration of UTM with ATM so that flight plans and real-time location of manned aircraft can be recorded as well in order to continuously separate manned and unmanned aircraft from each other.
      • Law enforcement and security agencies will also have access to some information in the UTM ecosystem on a need-to-know basis.
      • The policy also allows UTMSPs to levy a service fee on users, a small portion of which will also be shared with the Airports Authority of India.
      • In order to implement this policy, the government is likely to carry out UTM-based experiments in the country and then float a request for proposal for onboarding UTMSPs.
      • Following which an evaluation process will be undertaken and successful participants will be awarded regions for establishment of UTM services.

    4.     SUDAN

    • News: Sudan’s top General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan defended the Army’s seizure of power on Tuesday, saying he had ousted the Government of Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok to avoid civil war.
    • Map of Sudan: