geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 27th July 2021

    1.   MICROBES FOUND IN YAMUNA RIVER

    • News: Levels of fecal coliform (microbes from human and animal excreta) is above desirable limits in all points tested in the Yamuna in Delhi, except for Palla where the river enters the Capital, as per a Delhi government report.
    • Details:
      • The report submitted to the Union Ministry of Jal Sakti also stated that in the absence of a “minimum environmental flow” (flow of water) of the Yamuna in Delhi, it is very difficult to achieve even bathing quality standards of the river water.
      • Minimum environmental flow for the dilution of the polluted water in the Yamuna in Delhi is required to meet the desired water quality levels in the river for bathing purpose i.e. BOD<3 mg/l and DO>5 mg/l.
      • For bathing in a river, the desirable level of fecal coliform in the water is 500 MPN/100 ml or lesser, as per the Central Pollution Control Board.
      • According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, an environmental flow is the water provided within a river, wetland or coastal zone to maintain ecosystems and their benefits where there are competing water uses and where flows are regulated.
    • About Central Pollution Control; Board (CPCB):
      • The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India is a statutory organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (Mo.E.F.C.C.).
      • It was established in 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act, 1974.
      • The CPCB is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
      • It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
      • It Co-ordinates the activities of the State Pollution Control Boards by providing technical assistance and guidance and also resolves disputes among them. It is the apex organisation in country in the field of pollution control, as a technical wing of MoEFCC.
      • Functions of CPCB:
        • Functions of CPCB comes under both national level and as State Boards for the Union Territories. CPCB, under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, aims to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
        • Air quality/ pollution:CPCB runs nationwide programs of ambient air quality monitoring known as National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP). The network consists of 621 operating stations covering 262 cities/towns in 29 states and 5 Union Territories of the country. Under N.A.M.P., four air pollutants viz., Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2, Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM/ PM10) have been identified for regular monitoring at all the locations. The monitoring of meteorological parameters such as wind speed and wind direction, relative humidity (RH) and temperature were also integrated with the monitoring of air quality. This information on Air Quality at ITO is updated every week.
        • Water quality/ pollution:Fresh water is a finite resource essential for use in agriculture, industry, propagation of wildlife & fisheries and for human existence. India is a riverine country. It has 14 major rivers, 44 medium rivers and 55 minor rivers besides numerous lakes, ponds and wells which are used as primary source of drinking water even without treatment. Most of the rivers being fed by monsoon rains, which is limited to only three months of the year, run dry throughout the rest of the year often carrying wastewater discharges from industries or cities or towns endangering the quality of our scarce water resources. CPCB in collaboration with concerned SPCBs/PCCs established a nationwide network of water quality monitoring, which has running 1019 stations in 27 States and 6 Union Territories. The inland water quality monitoring network is operating under a three-tier program i.e. Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS), Monitoring of Indian National Aquatic Resources System (MINARS) and Yamuna Action Plan (YAP).
        • Urban area programs (EcoCity Program):CPCB programs for urban areas, also known as EcoCity Program comes under X Plan to improve environment through implementation of identified environmental improvement projects in the selected towns and cities. Pilot studies conducted for urban areas by the Centre for Spatial Environmental Planning created at the CPCB under the World Bank funded Environmental Management Capacity Building Project and supported by the GTZ-CPCB Project under the Indo-German Bilateral Program. According to these studies CPCB develop a comprehensive urban improvement system employing practical, innovative and non-conventional solutions.
        • Municipal Solid Waste rules:Every municipal authority comes under the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 (MSW rules, 2000) and responsible for collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and disposal of municipal solid. CPCB collects necessary information form municipal authorities and provide them technical assistance.
        • Noise Pollution/ Rules:According to S.O. 123(E) by MoEFC, various sources like industrial activity, construction activity, generator sets, loud speakers, public address systems, music systems, vehicular horns and other mechanical devices have deleterious effects on human health. CPCB has the responsibility to regulate and control noise producing and generating sources with the objective of maintaining the ambient air quality standards.
        • Environmental Data Statistics:CPCB manages environmental data statistic in which air quality data and water quality data comes through. In the case of air quality data, it measures the level of SO2, NO2, RSPM and SPM. CPCB measure and maintains water quality data as well. Quality level of river and ponds are the major fields which comes under the water quality data criteria.
      • About International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN):
        • The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
        • It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education.
        • IUCN’s mission is to “influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable”.
        • Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects.
        • IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation.
        • It tries to influence the actions of governments, business and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through building partnerships.
        • The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
        • Its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland.
        • IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations and plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity.
        • It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre.

    2.   PURI: INDIA’S FIRST CITY TO PROVIDE QUALITY DRINKING TAP WATER

    • News: Puri on Monday became the first city in India where people can avail high quality drinking water directly from the tap on 24-hour basis.
    • Details:
      • Puri has become the first city in the country to implement a project of this kind. It has enabled the people of Puri to collect quality drinking water directly from the tap. Henceforth, people need not have to store or filter drinking water.
      • The inauguration of ‘Drink from Tap’ project marks a new chapter. No metropolitan city in India have such facility yet. Similar facilities are available only in world-class cities like London, New York and Singapore.
      • The project would benefit 2.5 lakh citizens of Puri and 2 crore tourists who visit the tourist place every year. They need not have to move around with water bottle. Puri would no more be burdened with 400 metric tonne of plastic waste.

    3.   TUNISIA

    • News: Street clashes erupted on Monday outside Tunisia’s Army-barricaded Parliament, a day after President Kais Saied ousted the Prime Minister and suspended the legislature, plunging the young democracy into a constitutional crisis.
    • Maps of Tunisia: