geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 25th May 2022

    1.    QUADRILATERAL ALLIANCE

    • News: The Quadrilateral alliance (Quad) is a “force for good”, Prime Minister Narendra Modi said in his opening remarks at its summit in Tokyo on Tuesday.
    • About Quadrilateral Alliance:
      • The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD), colloquially the Quad (sometimes erroneously written QUAD despite not being an acronym), is a strategic security dialogue between Australia, India, Japan, and the United States that is maintained by talks between member countries. The dialogue was initiated in 2007 by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, with the support of Australian Prime Minister John Howard, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney.
      • The dialogue was paralleled by joint military exercises of an unprecedented scale, titled Exercise Malabar.
      • The diplomatic and military arrangement was widely viewed as a response to increased Chinese economic and military power, and the Chinese government responded to the Quadrilateral dialogue by issuing formal diplomatic protests to its members, calling it “Asian NATO”.
      • The Quad ceased following the withdrawal of Australia during Kevin Rudd’s tenure as prime minister, reflecting ambivalence in Australian policy over the growing tension between the United States and China in the Asia-Pacific.
    • About Indo-Pacific Partnership for Maritime Domain Awareness (IPMDA):
      • The leaders of the Quad countries announced the formation of the Indo-Pacific Partnership for Maritime Domain Awareness (IPMDA), which will build a “faster, wider, and more accurate maritime picture of near-real-time activities in partners’ waters.”
      • “The benefits of this (maritime) picture are vast: it will allow tracking of “dark shipping” and other tactical-level activities, such as rendezvous at sea, as well as improve partners’ ability to respond to climate and humanitarian events and to protect their fisheries, which are vital to many Indo-Pacific economies,”
    • About Dark Ships:
      • “Dark ships” are vessels with their Automatic Identification System (AIS) – a transponder system – switched off so as not to be detectable.

    2.    PLACES OF WORSHIP ACT

    • News: The Qutub Minar complex is not a place of worship and its character cannot be changed now, the Archaeological Survey of India submitted in a Delhi court on Tuesday while opposing a plea challenging the dismissal of a civil suit seeking “restoration” of Hindu and Jain temples on the premises.
    • About Places of Worship Act:
      • It is described as “An Act to prohibit conversion of any place of worship and to provide for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on the 15th day of August 1947, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.”
      • Exemption:
        • The disputed site at Ayodhya was exempted from the Act. Due to this exemption, the trial in the Ayodhya case proceeded even after the enforcement of this law.
        • Besides the Ayodhya dispute, the Act also exempted:
        • Any place of worship which is an ancient and historical monument, or an archaeological site covered by the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958.
        • A suit that has been finally settled or disposed of.
        • Any dispute that has been settled by the parties or conversion of any place that took place by acquiescence before the Act commenced.
      • Section 3: This section of the Act bars the conversion, in full or part, of a place of worship of any religious denomination into a place of worship of a different religious denomination or even a different segment of the same religious denomination.
      • Section 4(1):It declares that the religious character of a place of worship “shall continue to be the same as it existed” on 15th August 1947.
      • Section 4(2):It says any suit or legal proceeding with respect to the conversion of the religious character of any place of worship existing on 15th August, 1947, pending before any court, shall abate and no fresh suit or legal proceedings shall be instituted.
      • The proviso to this subsection saves suits, appeals, and legal proceedings that are pending on the date of commencement of the Act if they pertain to the conversion of the religious character of a place of worship after the cut-off date.
      • Section 5:It stipulates that the Act shall not apply to the Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri Masjid case, and to any suit, appeal, or proceeding relating to it.

    3.    ELECTRONIC WASTE (E-WASTE) RULES

    • News: Consumer goods companies and makers of electronics goods have to ensure at least 60% of their electronic waste is collected and recycled by 2023 with targets to increase them to 70% and 80% in 2024 and 2025, respectively, according to a draft notification by the Environment Ministry made public this week.
    • Details:
      • The rules bring into effect a system of trading in certificates, akin to carbon credits, that will allow companies to temporarily bridge shortfalls.
      • A wide range of electronic goods, including laptops, landline and mobile phones, cameras, recorders, music systems, microwaves, refrigerators and medical equipment, have been specified in the notification.
      • India, which is unique among South Asian countries in that it has a formal set of rules for electronic waste management, first announced these rules in 2016 and amended them in 2018.
      • Along with specifying targets, the rules lay out a system of companies securing extended producer responsibility (EPR) certificates.
      • These certificates certify the quantity of e-waste collected and recycled in a particular year by a company and an organisation may sell surplus quantities to another company to help it meet its obligations.
      • The earlier rules stressed collection targets. Now we are emphasising the EPR, recycling and trading. This follows from the government’s objective to promote a circular economy.
      • Companies will have to register on an online portal and specify their annual production and e-waste collection targets.
      • The chief entity that will coordinate the trade of EPR certificates and monitor if companies are meeting their targets is the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).
    • About Electronic Waste (E Waste) Rules:
      • Manufacturer, dealer, refurbisher and Producer Responsibility Organization (PRO) have been introduced as additional stakeholders in the rules.
      • The applicability of the rules has been extended to components, consumables, spares and parts of EEE in addition to equipment as listed in Schedule I.
      • Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and other mercury containing lamp brought under the purview of rules.
      • Collection mechanism based approach has been adopted to include collection centre, collection point, take back system etc for collection of e – waste by Producers under Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).
      • Option has been given for setting up of PRO , e – waste exchange , e – retailer, Deposit Refund Scheme as additional channel for implementation of EPR by Producers to ensure efficient channelization of e – waste.
      • Provision for Pan India EPR Authorization by CPCB has been introduced replacing the state wise EPR authorization.
      • Collection and channelisation of e – waste in Extended Producer Responsibility – Authorisation shall be i n line with the targets prescribed in Schedule III of the Rules. The phase wise Collection Target for e – waste, which can be either in number or Weight shall be 30% of the quantity of waste generation as indicated in EPR Plan during first two year of implementation of rules followed by 40% during third and fourth years, 50% during fifth and sixth years and 70% during seventh year onwards.
      • Deposit Refund Scheme has been introduced as an additional economic instrument wherein the producer charges an additional amount as a deposit at the time of sale of the electrical and electronic equipment and returns it to the consumer along with interest when the end – of – life electrical and electronic equipment is returned.
      • The e – waste exchange as an option has been provided in the rules as an independent market instrument offering assistance or independent electronic systems offering services for sale and purchase of e – waste generated from end – of – life electrical and electronic equipment between agencies or organizations authorised under these rules.
      • The manufacturer is also now responsible to collect e – waste generated during the manufacture of any electrical and electronic equipment and channelise it for recycling or disposal and seek authorization from SPCB.
      • The dealer, if has been given the responsibility of collection on behalf of the producer, need to collect the e – waste by providing the consumer a box and channelize it to Producer.
      • Dealer or retailer or e – retailer shall refund the amount as per take back system or De posit Refund Scheme of the producer to the depositor of e – waste.
      • Refurbisher need collect e – waste generated during the process of refurbishing and channelise the waste to authorised dismantler or recycler through its collection centre and seek one time authorization from SPCB.
      • The roles of the State Government has been also introduced in the Rules in order to ensure safety, health and skill development of the workers involved in the dismantling and recycling operations.
      • Department of Industry in State o r any other government agency authorised in this regard by the State Government is to ensure earmarking or allocation of industrial space or shed for e – waste dismantling and recycling in the existing and upcoming industrial park, estate and industrial clusters.
      • Department of Labour in the State or any other government agency authorised in this regard by the State Government need to ensure recognition and registration of workers involved in dismantling and recycling; assist formation of groups of such workers to facilitate setting up dismantling facilities; undertake industrial skill development activities for the workers involved in dismantling and recycling; and undertake annual monitoring and to ensure safety & health of workers involved in dismantling and recycling.
      • State Government to prepare integrated plan for effective implementation of these provisions, and to submit annual report to Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
      • The transportation of e – waste shall be carried out as per the manifest system whereby the transporter shall be required to carry a document (three copies) prepared by the sender, giving the details.
      • Liability for damages caused to the environment or third party due to improper management of e – waste including provision for levying financial penalty for violation of provisions of the Rules has also been introduced.
      • Urban Local Bodies (Municipal Committee/Council/Corporation) has been assign the duty to collect and channelized the orphan products to authorized dismantler or recycler.

     

     

     

     

    MCQS FOR PRACTICE

     

    1. Which of the following is not a member of the Quadrilateral Alliance?
      1. India
      2. New Zealand
      3. Japan
      4. USA
    2. Which of the following is a reference to Dark Ships
      1. Ships with black non-corrosive paint
      2. Enemy ships as detected on the radar
      3. Ships with Automatic Identification System off
      4. Ships with stealth paint covering
    3. Places of Worship Act, had prohibited conversion of any place of worship as they existed after which date
      1. 12th June, 1991
      2. 26th January, 1950
      3. 26th November, 1949
      4. 15th August, 1947
    4. The E – Waste Rules of 2016, put the responsibility of recycling on?
      1. Producer
      2. Consumer
      3. Collector
      4. All of the above