geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 25th March 2022

    1.   UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    • News: India on Thursday abstained in the UN General Assembly on a resolution by Ukraine and its allies on the humanitarian crisis in the war-torn eastern European country, saying the focus should be on cessation of hostilities and on urgent humanitarian assistance.
    • About United Nations General Assembly:
      • The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), serving as the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN.
      • Currently in its 76th session, its powers, composition, functions, and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter.
      • The UNGA is responsible for the UN budget, appointing the non-permanent members to the Security Council, appointing the Secretary-General of the United Nations, receiving reports from other parts of the UN system, and making recommendations through resolutions.
      • It also establishes numerous subsidiary organs to advance or assist in its broad mandate.
      • The UNGA is the only UN organ wherein all member states have equal representation.
      • The General Assembly meets under its president or the UN Secretary-General in annual sessions at UN headquarters in New York City; the main part of these meetings generally run from September to part of January until all issues are addressed (which is often before the next session starts).
      • It can also reconvene for special and emergency special sessions.
      • The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of the 51 founding nations.
      • Voting in the General Assembly on certain important questions—namely recommendations on peace and security; budgetary concerns; and the election, admission, suspension or expulsion of members—is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Other questions are decided by a simple majority.
      • Each member country has one vote. Apart from the approval of budgetary matters, including the adoption of a scale of assessment, Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members.
      • The Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security under the Security Council consideration.

    2.   CHAMAYAVILAKKU RITUAL

    • News: Attire change Men dressed up as women taking part in the Chamayavilakku ritual to propitiate the deity as part of the annual festival of the Chavara Kottankulangara Devi temple in Kollam, Kerala.
    • Details:
      • The famous Chamayavilakku is a unique festival which is held at the Kottankulangara Sree Devi Temple, Chavara near Kollam, Kerala where thousands of men irrespective of their religious faith dressed up as women offered prayers to the Goddess Bhagavathy, the deity of the Temple which is believed as ‘Swayam Bhoo'(Self Origin).
      • This famous temple is the only temple in Kerala having no roof the sanctum sanctorum.
      • The uniqueness of this temple is that the boys and girls dress themselves as girls and ladies to hold the traditional temple lamp.
      • In this unique ritual called ‘Chamayavilakku’ (make-up-lamp), the ‘Damsels’ come to the temple at night in a long procession with lighted lamp in their hands.
      • The two day festival attracts thousands of devotees throughout the State. Believers from other States are also participating in this famous festival.
      • Recently several foreigners are also attending this famous traditional festival.

    3.   COLLEGIUM SYSTEM

    • News: Nine judges, including two whose names had to be reiterated by the Supreme Court Collegium after the Centre had initially objected, were appointed to five High Courts.
    • About Collegium System:
      • The Supreme Court of India was inaugurated on January 28, 1950. It succeeded the Federal Court of India which was established under the Government of India Act, 1935.
      • Article 124 to 147 in Part V of the Indian Constitution envisages the powers, independence and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
      • The maximum strength of the Supreme Court can be 34 judges (one Chief Justice and 33 other judges) while currently there are just 27 judges (including Chief Justice) working in the Supreme Court and 4 posts are vacant.
      • The Collegium System is a system under which appointments/elevation of judges/lawyers to Supreme Court and transfers of judges of High Courts and Apex Court are decided by a forum of the Chief Justice of India and the four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court.’ There is no mention of the Collegium either in the original Constitution of India or in successive amendments.
      • The Collegiums System of appointment of judges was born through “three judges case” which interpreted constitutional articles on October 28, 1998.
      • The recommendations of the Collegium are binding on the Central Government; if the Collegium sends the names of the judges/lawyers to the government for the second time.
      • Article 124(2):This article of the Indian Constitution reads that the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President after consultation with such a number of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose.
      • Article 217:Indian Constitution’s article states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court.
      • The Collegium System is that under which appointments and promotion and transfer of the judges of the Supreme Court are decided by a forum which consists of the Chief Justice of India plus four of the senior-most judges of the Supreme Court.
      • No such mention (of the Collegium) has been made either in the original Constitution of India or in successive amendments.
      • Process for the appointment of Chief Justice of India:
        • It is the President of India, who appoints the CJI and the other judges in the Supreme Court.
        • It has been a practice that the exiting CJI would recommend his successor.
        • It is strictly a rule that the CJI would only be chosen on a seniority basis. This has happened after the controversy of 1970.
      • Process of appointment of the High Court
        • The Chief Justice of the high court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Governor.
        • The collegium decides on the judge’s appointment and the proposal is sent to the chief minister, who would then advice the Governor and the proposal for appointment would be sent to the Law Minister in the Union Government.

    4.   NATIONAL TB ELIMINATION PROGRAM

    • News: A 19% increase was witnessed in 2021 from the previous year in TB patients’ notifications. The number of incident TB patients (new and relapse) notified during 2021 was 19,33,381 against the 16,28,161 in 2020, noted India TB Report 2022.
    • Details:
      • On World Tuberculosis Day on Thursday, Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya reaffirmed the government’s commitment to making India tuberculosis–free by 2025 and said this will be achieved by ensuring access to quality healthcare and advanced treatment.
      • The report said despite the decline in TB notifications observed around the months corresponding to the two major COVID–19 waves, the National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP) reclaimed these numbers.
      • It said 18 States have committed to ending TB by 2025 by implementing State–specific strategic plans and have devised a district–specific strategic plan, which shall serve as a guiding tool for the programme managers.
      • The government also released the National TB Prevalence Survey Report which was conducted from 2019 to 2021 to know the actual disease burden of TB.
      • The reports said there has been an increase in the mortality rate due to all forms of TB between 2019 and 2020 by 11%.
      • The survey report said prevalence of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among 15 years and above in India was 316/lakh population with the highest PTB prevalence of 534/lakh in Delhi and the lowest PTB prevalence of 115/lakh in Kerala.
    • About World TB Day 2022:
      • The theme of World TB Day 2022 – ‘Invest to End TB. Save Lives.’ –conveys the urgent need to invest resources to ramp up the fight against TB and achieve the commitments to end TB made by global leaders.
    • About National TB Elimination Program:
      • The National Tuberculosis Elimination Program (NTEP) is the Public Health initiative of the Government of India that organizes its anti-Tuberculosis efforts.
      • It functions as a flagship component of the National Health Mission (NHM) and provides technical and managerial leadership to anti-tuberculosis activities in the country.
      • As per the National Strategic Plan 2017-25, the program has a vision of achieving a “TB free India”,with a strategies under the broad themes of “Prevent, Detect,Treat and Build pillars for universal coverage and social protection”.
      • The program provides, various free of cost, quality tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services across the country through the government health system.
      • The program is managed through a four level hierarchy from the national level down to the sub-district (Tuberculosis Unit) level.
      • At the country level the program is led by the Central TB Division under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
      • The State TB Cell and the District TB Office govern the activities of the program at the state and district level respectively. At the sub-district/ Block level activities are organized under the Tuberculosis Unit (TB Unit).