geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 24th September 2021

    1.    GROUNDWATER

    • News: The Delhi government is planning to install reverse osmosis (RO) plants in areas where groundwater levels are shallow, but not usable due to high salinity and hardness, to solve the water shortage in the city, Water Minister Satyendar Jain.
    • About Groundwater:
      • Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth’s surface in rock and soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
      • A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water.
      • The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock become completely saturated with water is called the water table.
      • Groundwater is recharged from the surface; it may discharge from the surface naturally at springs and seeps, and can form oases or wetlands.
      • Groundwater is also often withdrawn for agricultural, municipal, and industrial use by constructing and operating extraction wells.
      • Typically, groundwater is thought of as water flowing through shallow aquifers, but, in the technical sense, it can also contain soil moisture, permafrost (frozen soil), immobile water in very low permeability bedrock, and deep geothermal or oil formation water.
      • Groundwater is hypothesized to provide lubrication that can possibly influence the movement of faults.
      • It is likely that much of Earth’s subsurface contains some water, which may be mixed with other fluids in some instances.
      • Groundwater is often cheaper, more convenient and less vulnerable to pollution than surface water. Therefore, it is commonly used for public water supplies.

    2.    SANDALWOOD

    • News: Besides ivory, around 200 kg of sandalwood oil, seized by officials from illicit sandal oil distilling units earlier, will also be moved to the treasure chest that has come up on the premises of the State Forest Headquarters.
    • About Sandalwood:
      • Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum.
      • The woods are heavy, yellow, and fine-grained, and, unlike many other aromatic woods, retain their fragrance for decades. Sandalwood oil is extracted from the woods for use.
      • Sandalwood is often cited as one of the most expensive woods in the world. Both the wood and the oil produce a distinctive fragrance that has been highly valued for centuries.
      • Consequently, some species of these slow-growing trees have suffered over-harvesting in the past.
      • Producing commercially valuable sandalwood with high levels of fragrance oils requires Indian sandalwood (S. album) trees to be a minimum of 15 years old – the yield, quality and volume are still to be clearly understood.
      • Yield of oil tends to vary depending on the age and location of the tree; usually, the older trees yield the highest oil content and quality. Australia is the largest producer of S. album

    3.    ARJUN TANK

    • News: The Union Environment Ministry convened a meeting on Thursday with representatives from Delhi and neighbouring States that see pollution levels soar during winter.
    • About Arjun Tank:
      • The Arjun is a third generation main battle tank developed by the Combat Vehicles Research and Development Establishment (CVRDE) of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), for the Indian Army.
      • The tank is named after Arjuna, the archer prince who is the main protagonist of the Indian epic poem Mahabharata.
      • The 43rd Armoured Regiment, formed in 2009, was the first regiment to receive the Arjun.
      • The Arjun features a 120 mm rifled main gun with indigenously developed armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot ammunition, one PKT 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun and a NSVT 12.7 mm machine gun.
      • Powered by a single MTU multi-fuel diesel engine rated at 1,400 hp, it can achieve a maximum speed of 70 km/h (43 mph) and a cross-country speed of 40 km/h (25 mph).
      • It has a four-man crew: commander, gunner, loader and driver.

    4.    COMPREHENSIVE AND PROGRESSIVE AGREEMENT FOR TRANS-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP

    • News: China sent 19 aircraft towards Taiwan on Thursday amid rising tensions across the straits, in the latest messaging from Beijing to both Taipei and Washington on its posture on the Taiwan issue.
    • About Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership:
      • The Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), also known as TPP11 or TPP-11, is a trade agreement among Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam.
      • It evolved from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), which never entered into force due to the withdrawal of the United States.
      • The eleven signatories have combined economies representing 13.4 percent of global gross domestic product, at approximately US$13.5 trillion, making the CPTPP one of the world’s largest free-trade areas by GDP, along with the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, the European Single Market, and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.