News: The first of two additional Krivak class stealth frigates being built by Russia is expected to be delivered to India in the middle of 2023.
In October 2016, India and Russia signed an Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) for four Krivak or Talwar class stealth frigates — two to be procured directly from Russia and two to be built by Goa Shipyard Ltd. (GSL) — after which a $1 billion deal was signed for the direct purchase.
The keel for the first ship to be built at GSL was laid in January and for the second ship in June this year. Keel laying is a major milestone in shipbuilding symbolises the formal commencement of the construction process.
In November 2018, GSL signed a $500 million deal with Rosoboronexport of Russia for material, design and specialist assistance to locally manufacture the two frigates, and in January 2019 the contract was signed between the Ministry of Defence and GSL.
A frigate is a type of warship. In different eras, ships classified as frigates have had very varied roles and capabilities.
In the 17th century, a frigate was any warship built for speed and manoeuvrability, the description often used being “frigate-built”.
These could be warships carrying their principal batteries of carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks (with further smaller carriage-mounted guns usually carried on the forecastle and quarterdeck of the vessel).
The term was generally used for ships too small to stand in the line of battle, although early line-of-battle ships were frequently referred to as frigates when they were built for speed.
2. CHAKMA PEOPLE
News: Chakma organisations have slammed the proposed deportation of 60,000 people belonging to the Chakma and Hajong communities from Arunachal Pradesh.
About Chakma People:
The Chakma people are a native group from the easternmost regions of the Indian subcontinent.
They are the largest ethnic group in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in south-eastern Bangladesh, and the second largest in Mizoram, India (Chakma Autonomous District Council).
3. RAIN SURPLUS AND RAIN DEFICIT
News: With more than 31% deficit in monsoon rainfall till August 23, farmers in Odisha are staring at a drought-like situation.
As per India Meteorological Department norms, a State or a region is declared to have received deficit rainfall when the deficiency stands at 19% or above.
Jajpur and Bhadrak are the worst-hit districts where deficit rainfall is 55% and 51% respectively.
About the Criteria:
Long Period Average (LPA): It is the average rainfall recorded during the months from June to September, calculated during the 50-year period, and is kept as a benchmark while forecasting the quantitative rainfall for the monsoon season every year.
IMD maintains five rainfall distribution categories on an all-India scale. These are:
Normal or Near Normal:When per cent departure of actual rainfall is +/-10% of LPA, that is, between 96-104% of LPA.
Below Normal:When departure of actual rainfall is less than 10% of LPA, that is 90-96% of LPA.
Above Normal:When actual rainfall is 104-110% of LPA.
Deficient:When departure of actual rainfall is less than 90% of LPA.
Excess:When departure of actual rainfall is more than 110% of LPA.
4. PUNNAPRA – VAYALAR UPRISING AND KAYYUR UPRISING
News: Martyrs of the communist movement of Kerala, including the ones killed at the Punnapra-Vayalar, Kayyur, Karivelloor, and Kavumbayi uprisings, will remain as freedom fighters in the annals of India’s struggle for Independence.
A three-member committee appointed by the Indian Council of Historic Research (ICHR) to review the entries in the fifth volume of the ‘Dictionary of Martyrs: India’s Freedom Struggle (1857-1947)’ is understood to have left the martyrs of the Left movement untouched.
The ICHR had recalled the publication and appointed a review panel after a section of the Sangh Parivar historians strongly objected to the inclusion of the martyrs of communist movement and the 1921 Malabar Rebellion in the compendium.
The committee is understood to have recommended the deletion of the Malabar Rebellion leaders Variamkunnath Kunhamed Haji, Ali Musaliar, and 387 other ‘Moplah martyrs’ from the list.
About Punnapra – Vayalar Uprising:
The Punnapra-Vayalar killings (October 1946) was a militant communist movement in the Princely State of Travancore, British India against the Prime Minister, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer and the state.
About Kayyur Rebellion:
Kayyur has developed a reputation for being a village of rebel over a period of history.
The first communist rebellion happened in Kayyur and several revolts followed suit.
Madathil Appu was hanged by the British in 1943.
Kayyur is considered the cradle of agrarian revolution in Kerala. The people of this village have an anti-feudal attitude.
5. HALLMARK RULES
News: Jewellers of around 350 associations across India will go on a “token strike” Monday against the “arbitrarily implemented” hallmarking process of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).
About the Rules:
The BIS hallmark is a hallmarking system for gold as well as silver jewellery sold in India certifying the purity of the metal.
It certifies that the piece of jewellery conforms to a set of standards laid by the Bureau of Indian Standards, the national standards organization of India.
India is the second biggest market for gold and its jewellery.
India imports in excess of 1000 tons annually (including unofficially smuggled gold) with negligible local production.
The annual gold imports are around 50 billion US$ next only to crude oil imports widening the trade deficit.
According to the new hallmarking rules, that came into effect in June, jewellers are only allowed to sell gold items of 14,18 and 22 carats and are required to hallmark their products.
In case they don’t, they face a penalty — pay five times the cost of the product sold or face up to a year of imprisonment.
BIS hallmark for gold jewellery consists of several components:
The BIS logo
Purity of Gold either one of this 22K916 Corresponding to 22 Carat, 18K750 Corresponding to 18 Carat and 14K585 Corresponding to 14 Carat.
Logo of the assaying centre.
Logo/code of the jeweller.
6. JIM CORBETT NATIONAL PARK
News: The Delhi High Court on Monday asked the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) to consider as representation a petition to stop the alleged illegal construction of bridges and walls within tiger breeding habitat of the Corbett Tiger Reserve.
About Jim Corbett National Park:
Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger.
It is located in Nainital district and Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand and was named after hunter and naturalist Jim Corbett.
The park was the first to come under the Project Tiger initiative.
Corbett National Park comprises 520.8 km2 (201.1 sq mi) area of hills, riverine belts, marshy depressions, grasslands and a large lake.
Winter nights are cold but the days are bright and sunny.
It rains from July to September.
The park has sub-Himalayan belt geographical and ecological characteristics.
Dense moist deciduous forest mainly consists of sal, haldu, peepal, rohini and mango trees.
It has numerous ravines, ridges, minor streams and small plateaus with varying aspects and degrees of slope.
The park encompasses the Patli Dun valley formed by the Ramganga river.