Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 22nd March 2022


    • News: It is a common belief that evolutionary changes take place at a much slower pace than ecological change.
    • Details of the study:
      • It is a common belief that evolutionary changes take place at a much slower pace than ecological change.
      • However, this is not completely true, and there is now mounting evidence to the contrary albeit under certain circumstances. In this line of thought, an experimental study of Drosophila melanogaster, or fruit fly, has shown that the pace of adaptation can match that of environmental and seasonal changes.
      • Adaptive tracking, which is defined as continuous adaptation in response to rapid environmental change. Adaptive tracking is known to be the critical mechanism by which living beings continue to thrive in a changing environment, but little is known about the pace, extent and magnitude of adaptive tracking in response to a changing environment.
    • About the Rate of Evolution:
      • The rate of evolution is quantified as the speed of genetic or morphological change in a lineage over a period of time.
      • The speed at which a molecular entity (such as a protein, gene, etc.) evolves is of considerable interest in evolutionary biology since determining the evolutionary rate is the first step in characterizing its evolution.
      • Calculating rates of evolutionary change is also useful when studying phenotypic changes in phylogenetic comparative biology.
      • In either case, it can be beneficial to consider and compare both genomic (such as DNA sequence) data and paleontological (such as fossil record) data, especially in regards to estimating the timing of divergence events and establishing geological time scales.


    • News: Union Petroleum and Natural Gas Minister Hardeep Singh Puri told the Rajya Sabha on Monday that facts regarding the stand taken by western oil companies on pulling investments out of Russia varied on the ground.
    • Details:
      • India, imported less than 1% of its crude oil requirement from Russia.
      • Indian oil companies had invested $16 billion in Russia, and some of those investments were profitable. Sakhalin-1 where OVL [ONGC Videsh Ltd.] has a 20% stake, the investment of $337 million has led to an overall revenue of $3.7 billion and we still have 20 years of assets left.
      • The one facility where one of the western entities is the operator, one of our oil companies has a 20% share.
      • In 2020-21, India imported 85% of its crude oil requirements and 54% of its natural gas requirement.
      • India’s major sources of crude oil imports are the U.S., Iraq, Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Nigeria.


    • News: Facing allegations from State governments ruled by BJP rivals on the reported delay in clearing of Centre’s dues, Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on Monday asserted that all dues up till February this year had been cleared.
    • About the Budgetary Process:
      • In India, the Union Budget is prepared by the Department of Economic Affairs of the Ministry of Finance.
      • The budget is referred to in the Constitution as the “annual financial statement.” To put it another way, the term “budget” appears nowhere in the Constitution. It’s the common name for the ‘annual financial statement,’ which is addressed in Article 112 of the Constitution.
      • The President is responsible for submitting the budget to the Lok Sabha, according to Article 112 of the Indian Constitution. The yearly financial statement covers a year’s worth of transactions.
      • According to Article 77 (3), the President has delegated to the Union Finance Minister the responsibility of preparing the budget, also known as the yearly financial statement, and shepherding it through parliament. The budget represents the government of India’s expected receipts and expenditures for a certain fiscal year. Each year, the fiscal year begins on April 1st.
      • The budget is presented by the Finance Minister to Parliament each year during the Budget Session in February. The timing may vary during an election year.
      • The budget has to pass through the following stages:
        • In the Lok Sabha, the finance minister presents the budget. In the Lok Sabha, he presents his budget. At the same time, a copy of the budget is placed on the Rajya Sabha’s table. Members of the parliament are given printed copies of the budget to go over the intricacies of the budgetary measures.
        • Following the presentation of the budget, the finance bill is presented to parliament. The Finance Bill refers to proposals for new taxes, changes to current taxes, or the repeal of previous taxes.
        • The revenue and expenditure proposals are debated in Parliament. Members of Parliament actively participate in the debate.
        • Grant requests are presented to Parliament at the same time as the budget. These grant requests demonstrate that the estimates of expenditure for several ministries must be voted on by Parliament.
        • The members who propose a reduction of grant bring three kinds of cut motions which are either withdrawn or dropped because their passing will be tantamount to a vote of no confidence in the government. Still, to attract the attention of the government, the cut motions are moved to bring moral pressure on the executive.
        • Cut Motions 
          • Token Cut Motion:It expresses a specific grievance that is within the sphere of responsibility of the government. It states that the amount of the demand will be reduced by Rs 100. On the 26th day, the Speaker puts all the remaining demands to vote and disposes of them whether they have been discussed by the members or not. This is called ‘Guillotine closer’.
          • Policy Cut Motionshows disapproval of the policy underlying a demand. It states that the amount of the demand will be reduced to Re 1.
          • Economy Cut Motionasks for the economy in the proposed expenditure. It states that the amount of the demand be reduced by a specified amount by a which may be either a lump-sum reduction or omission or reduction of an item in the demand.