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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

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    Current Affairs – 22nd July 2021

    1.     PORUR LAKE

    • News: The Water Resources Department (WRD) is drawing up an estimate to construct a compound wall around Porur lake. The wall proposed to be constructed at a cost of around ₹20 crore would come up along the perimeter of the lake stretching for 5 km with small gaps to allow inflow of floodwater.
    • About Porur Lake:
      • Porur Lake is located on the fringes of Porur in south-west Chennai and is a primary water resource for people residing in Chennai.
      • It is a temporary catchment area connected with Chembarambakkam Lake. It is spread over 200 acres with a capacity of 46 million cubic feet (mcft).
    • About Chembaramkaam Lake:
      • Chembarambakkam lake is a lake located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, about 25 km from Chennai.
      • It is one of the two rain-fed reservoirs from where water is drawn for supply to Chennai City, the other one being the Puzhal Lake.
      • The Adyar River originates from this lake. A part of water supply of the metropolis of Chennai is drawn from this lake.
      • This was the first Artificial lake built by Rajendra Chola I the son of Rajaraja Chola and Thiripuvana Madeviyar, prince of Kodumbalur.

    2.     NATARAJA IDOL

    • News:S. authorities announced the indictment of Neil Perry Smith, 58, following his extradition from London to face charges for his role in a decades-long, global antiquities trafficking ring that looted and smuggled culturally significant relics from Asia and sold them in New York’s art market.
    • About Nataraja Idol:
      • Nataraja is a depiction of the Hindu god Shiva as the divine cosmic dancer. His dance is called Tandavam or Nadanta, depending on the context of the dance.
      • The pose and artwork is described in many Hindu texts such as the Anshumadbhed agama and Uttarakamika agama, the dance relief or idol featured in all major Hindu temples of Shaivism.
      • The classical form of the depiction appears in stone reliefs, as at the Ellora Caves and the Badami Caves, by around the 6th century.
      • Around the 10th century, it emerged in Tamil Nadu in its mature and best-known expression in Chola bronzes, of various heights typically less than four feet, some over.
      • The sculpture is symbolic of Shiva as the lord of dance and dramatic arts, with its style and proportions made according to Hindu texts on arts.
      • It typically shows Shiva dancing in one of the Natya Shastra poses, holding Agni (fire) in his left back hand, the front hand in gajahasta (elephant hand) or dandahasta (stick hand) mudra, the front right hand with a wrapped snake that is in abhaya (fear not) mudra while pointing to a Sutra text, and the back hand holding a musical instrument, usually a Udukai


    • News: A new generation of Akash surface-to-air missile was successfully flight-tested on Wednesday by the DRDO from an integrated test range off the Odisha coast in a boost to air defence capabilities.
    • About Akash Missile:
      • Akash is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile (SAM) system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and produced by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL).
      • Surveillance and Fire control radar, tactical control and command center and missile launcher are developed by Bharat Electronics (BEL), Tata Power Strategic Engineering Division and Larsen & Toubro.
      • The Akash missile system can target aircraft up to 50–80 km (31–50 mi) away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m.
      • It has the capability to neutralise aerial targets like fighter jets, cruise missiles and air-to-surface missiles as well as ballistic missiles.
      • It is in operational service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.
      • An Akash battery comprises a single Rajendra 3D passive electronically scanned array radar and four launchers with three missiles each, all of which are interlinked.
      • Each battery can track up to 64 targets and attack up to 12 of them. The missile has a 60 kg (130 lb) high-explosive, pre-fragmented warhead with a proximity fuse.
    • About Akash – NG Missile:
      • Akash – New generation abbreviated as Akash-NG is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile defense system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and produced by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) and Bharat Electronics (BEL).
      • This missile is a successor to the Akash and Akash-1S series of missiles with improvements such as a Dual-pulse solid rocket motor, a canisterized launcher and an AESA Multifunction targeting radar to improve its probability of kill with a smaller ground operations and logistics footprint.
      • Akash-NG will have an improved reaction time and higher level of protection against saturation attacks.
      • The second stage will use dual-pulse solid rocket motor which is lighter instead of air-breathing solid ramjet engine present in the earlier Akash and Akash-1S missiles to increase the overall range from current 40 km (25 mi) to greater than 80 km (50 mi) while also reducing the weight of the platform and the footprint of the launch platform, an active electronically scanned array Multi-Function Radar (MFR) and optical proximity fuze will improve the effectiveness of the missile against targets with low radar cross-section.


    • News: India has signed 26 bilateral pacts, 15 memoranda of understanding and two agreements on security cooperation with different countries for combating illicit trafficking of narcotic, drugs and psychotropic substances, besides chemical precursors, according to a Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) reply in the Lok Sabha.
    • Details:
      • The Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) coordinated with various international organisations for sharing information and intelligence to combat transnational drug trafficking.
      • They included the SAARC Drug Offences Monitoring Desk; Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa; Colombo Plan; Association of Southeast Asian Nations; ASEAN Senior Officials on Drug Matters; Bay of Bengal Initiative For Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Co-Operation; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and the International Narcotics Control Board.
      • Sharp vigil, effective surveillance, public cooperation, source-based intelligence, sensitisation of field officials and associated measures had resulted in a gradual increase in the registration of a number of drug trafficking related cases in the country.
      • For coordination among various Central and State agencies, the Narco Coordination Centre (NCORD) mechanism was set up by the MHA in year 2016 for effective drug law enforcement. This NCORD system has been restructured into a four-tier scheme up to district level.
      • For digitisation of pan-India drug seizure data, the MHA has launched an e-portal called ‘SIMS’ (Seizure Information Management System) in 2019 for all the drug law enforcement agencies under the mandate of Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS).
    • About Golden Crescent:
      • The Golden Crescent is the name given to one of Asia’s two principal areas of illicit opium production (with the other being the Golden Triangle), located at the crossroads of Central, South, and Western Asia.
      • This space overlaps three nations, Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan, whose mountainous peripheries define the crescent.
    • About Golden Triangle:
      • The Golden Triangle is the area where the borders of Thailand, Laos, and Myanmar meet at the confluence of the Ruak and Mekong rivers.