geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 22nd February 2022

    1. FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
     News: The Supreme Court on Monday asked the Union and the State governments to respond to a petition to enforce the fundamental duties of citizens, including patriotism and unity of the nation, through “comprehensive, well-defined laws”.
     About Fundamental Duties:
    o The fundamental duties of citizens were added to the constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, upon the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee that was constituted by the government earlier that year.
    o Originally ten in number, the fundamental duties were increased to eleven by the 86th Amendment in 2002, which added a duty on every parent or guardian to ensure that their child or ward was provided opportunities for education between the ages of six and fourteen years.
    o The other fundamental duties obligate all citizens to respect the national symbols of India, including the constitution, to cherish its heritage, preserve its composite culture and assist in its defence.
    o They also obligate all Indians to promote the spirit of common brotherhood, protect the environment and public property, develop scientific temper, abjure violence, and strive towards excellence in all spheres of life.
    o Though, they are not enforceable by the constitution, they can be enforced by the law of the Parliament or State Legislature.
    o Supreme court has ruled that these fundamental duties can also help the court to decide the constitutionality of a law passed by the legislature.
    o There is reference to such duties in international instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and Article 51A brings the Indian constitution into conformity with these treaties.
    o The fundamental duties noted in the constitution are as follows:
     To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
     To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
     To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India;
     To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
     To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic, and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
     To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
     To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures;
     To develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
     To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
     To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement;
     Who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years.
    2. PRODUCTION LINKED INCENTIVE SCHEME
     News: The rollback of Goods and Services Tax (GST) rate “corrections” on textiles in late December will hurt the production-linked incentives (PLI) scheme for the sector.
     About Production Linked Incentive Scheme:
    o As the name suggests, the scheme provides incentives to companies for enhancing their domestic manufacturing apart from focusing on reducing import bills and improving the cost competitiveness of local goods.
    o PLI scheme offers incentives on incremental sales for products manufactured in India.
    o The scheme for respective sectors has to be implemented by the concerned ministries and departments.
    o According to a Cabinet statement in November last year, savings, if any, from one PLI scheme of an approved sector can be utilised to fund the scheme for another approved sector.
    o Eligibility criteria for businesses under the PLI scheme vary based on the sector approved under the scheme.
    o For instance, the eligibility for telecom units is subject to the achievement of a minimum threshold of cumulative incremental investment and incremental sales of manufactured goods.
    o The minimum investment threshold for MSME is Rs 10 crore and Rs 100 crores for others.
    o Under food processing, SMEs and others must hold over 50 per cent of the stock of their subsidiaries, if any. The selection of SMEs is based on “their proposal, uniqueness of the product and the level of product development, etc.
    o On the other hand, for businesses under pharmaceuticals manufacturing, the project has to be a greenfield project while the net worth of the company should not be less than 30 per cent of the total committed investment. Moreover, the proposed Domestic Value Addition (DVA) of the company should be at least 90 per cent in the case of fermentation-based product and at least 70 per cent in the case of chemical synthesis-based product.
    o An incentive of 4-6 per cent was offered last year on mobile and electronic components manufacturing such as resistors, transistors, diodes, etc. Similarly, 10 per cent incentives were offered for six years (FY22-27) of the scheme for the food processing industry.
    o MEs in the four areas such as ready to cook or ready to eat, processed fruits and vegetables, marine products, and mozzarella cheese will also be supported for manufacture innovative and organic products, according to the ministry.
    o For white goods too, the incentive of 4-6 per cent on incremental sales of goods manufactured in India for a period of five years was offered to companies engaged in the manufacturing of air conditioners and LED lights.
    3. ONE HORNED RHINOCEROS
     News: A suspected rhino poacher, who was recently arrested from Kerala, escaped from police custody by jumping into the Brahmaputra river in Assam’s Biswanath district, a top police officer.
     About One Horned Rhinos:
    o The Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), also called the Indian rhino, greater one-horned rhinoceros or great Indian rhinoceros, is a rhinoceros species native to the Indian subcontinent.
    o It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as populations are fragmented and restricted to less than 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi).
    o Moreover, the extent and quality of the rhino’s most important habitat, the alluvial Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands and riverine forest, is considered to be in decline due to human and livestock encroachment. As of August 2018, the global population was estimated to comprise 3,588 individuals, including 2,939 individuals in India and 649 in Nepal.
    o Kaziranga National Park alone had an estimated population of 2,048 rhinos in 2009.
    o Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary in Assam has the highest density of Indian rhinos in the world with 84 individuals in an area of 38.80 km2 (14.98 sq mi) in 2009.
    o Indian rhinos once ranged throughout the entire stretch of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, but excessive hunting and agricultural development reduced its range drastically to 11 sites in northern India and southern Nepal.
    o Nearly 85% of the global Indian rhinoceros population is concentrated in Assam, where Kaziranga National Park contains 70% of rhino population.