geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 21st January 2022

    1.    C BAND FREQUENCY AND 5G TECHNOLOGY

    • News: Air India on Thursday said Boeing had cleared its B777 aircraft for flights to the U.S. following concerns that the 5G roll-out there could interfere with critical aircraft functions.
    • Details:
      • 5G is basically the fifth generation of mobile connectivity, and follows the first generation (GPRS), the second generation (EDGE), and the fourth generation (4G or LTE).  Currently, most countries in the world are still on 4G
      • Till last year, 5G was broadly deployed in the US in two frequencies. The first is the high-frequency millimetre wave (mmWave), which operates in the 28-39 Giga Hertz (GHz) frequency, which is considerably higher than 4G frequencies, which are typically between 700 and 2,500 Mega Hertz (MHz). Mobile internet speeds have been reported to touch 1Gbps in mmWave, but  a high-band tower can cover a radius of only a couple of kilometres and even tree leaves reportedly disrupt the coverage.
      • In contrast, a low-band (700MHz) tower can cover hundreds of square kilometres. But low-band 5G is essentially just a faster version of 4G; operating in the sub-1GHz frequency, it offers the widest coverage and speeds of around 1-2 times more than 4G.
      • The new frequency, C-Band, hits the sweet spot in 5G frequencies, offering the widest coverage with the highest speeds possible.
      • The C-Band operates in the  3.7-3.98GHz frequency, which is close to the 4.2-4.4GHz frequency used by altimeters on airlines. Altimeters are devices that can tell how high above the ground the aircraft is flying.
      • Altimeters are especially useful on a cloudy day or over mountainous terrain where visibility is limited.

    2.    BRAHMOS MISSILE

    • News: The supersonic cruise missile BrahMos with increased indigenous content and improved performance was successfully flight-tested from the Integrated Test Range, Chandipur off the coast of Odisha, on Thursday morning.
    • About Brahmos:
      • The BrahMos (designated PJ-10) is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft or land. It is notably one of the fastest supersonic cruise missiles in the world.
      • It is a joint venture between the Russian Federation’s NPO Mashinostroyeniya and India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), who together have formed BrahMos Aerospace.
      • It is based on the Russian P-800 Oniks cruise missile and other similar sea-skimming Russian cruise missile technology.
      • The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.
      • It is the world’s fastest anti-ship cruise missile currently in operation.
      • In 2016, as India became a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), India and Russia are now planning to jointly develop a new generation of Brahmos missiles with 800 km-plus range and an ability to hit protected targets with pinpoint accuracy.
      • In 2019, India upgraded the missile with a new range of 650 km with plans to eventually upgrade all missiles to a range of 1500 km.
    • About Missile Technology Control Regime:
      • The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is a multilateral export control regime.
      • It is an informal political understanding among 35 member states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.
      • The regime was formed in 1987 by the G-7 industrialized countries.
      • The MTCR seeks to limit the risks of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by controlling exports of goods and technologies that could make a contribution to delivery systems (other than manned aircraft) for such weapons.
      • In this context, the MTCR places particular focus on rockets and unmanned aerial vehicles capable of delivering a payload of at least 500 kg (1,100 lb) to a range of at least 300 km (190 miles) and on equipment, software, and technology for such systems.
      • The MTCR is not a treaty and does not impose any legally binding obligations on Partners (members). Rather, it is an informal political understanding among states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.