geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 20th April 2022

    1.   TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

    • News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Tuesday laid the foundation stone for the WHO Global Centre for Traditional Medicine (GCTM) at Jamnagar in Gujarat in the presence of Mauritius Prime Minister Pravind Kumar Jugnauth and World Health Organization Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.
    • Details:
      • A first of its kind, the GCTM will be a global outpost centre for traditional medicine across the world.
      • Ghebreyesus described the centre as a truly global project as 107 WHO member countries have their country-specific governmental offices which means the world will come to India for its leadership in the traditional medicines.
      • He said traditional medicines products abound globally and the centre will go a long way in bringing their promise to fruition. For many regions of the world, traditional medicine is the first line of treatment.
      • The centre will focus on data, innovation and sustainability and will optimise the use of traditional medicine.
      • The WHO Global Centre for Traditional Medicine is a recognition of India’s contribution and potential in this field. India takes this partnership as a huge responsibility for serving the entire humanity
    • About Traditional Medicine:
      • Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within the folk beliefs of various societies before the era of modern medicine.
      • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as “the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness”.
      • India has the unique distinction of having six recognized systems of medicine in this category. They are-Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Yoga, Naturopathy and Homoeopathy.
      • Though Homoeopathy came to India in 18th Century, it completely assimilated in to the Indian culture and got enriched like any other traditional system hence it is considered as part of Indian Systems of Medicine.
    • Ayurveda
      • Most of the traditional systems of India including Ayurveda have their roots in folk medicine. However what distinguishes Ayurveda from other systems is that it has a well-defined conceptual framework that is consistent throughout the ages.
      • In conceptual base, it was perhaps highly evolved and far ahead of its time. It was among the first medical systems to advocate an integrated approach towards matters of health and disease.
      • Another important distinguishing feature of Ayurveda is that unlike other medical systems, which developed their conceptual framework based on the results obtained with the use of drugs and therapy, it first provided philosophical framework that determined the therapeutic practice with good effects.
      • Its philosophical base is partly derived from ‘Samkhya’ and ‘Nyaya vaisheshika’ streams of Indian philosophy.
      • Ayurveda literally means the Science of life. It is presumed that the fundamental and applied principles of Ayurveda got organized and enunciated around 1500 BC.
      • Atharvaveda, the last of the four great bodies of knowledge- known as Vedas, which forms the backbone of Indian civilization, contains 114 hymns related to formulations for the treatment of different diseases.
      • From the knowledge gathered and nurtured over centuries two major schools and eight specializations got evolved. One was the school of physicians called as ‘Dhanvantri Sampradaya’ (Sampradaya means tradition) and the second school of surgeons referred in literature as ‘Atreya Sampradaya’.
      • These schools had their respective representative compilations- Charaka Samhita for the school of Medicine and Sushruta Samhita for the school of Surgery.
      • The former contains several chapters dealing with different aspects of medicine and related subjects. Around six hundred drugs of plant, animal and mineral origin have been mentioned in this treatise.
      • Sushruta Samhita primarily deals with different aspects of fundamental principles and theory of surgery.
      • More than 100 kinds of surgical instruments including scalpels, scissors, forceps, specula etc. are described along with their use in this document. Dissection and operative procedures are explained making use of vegetables and dead animals.

    2.   HEALTH STAR RATING

    • News: The “health star rating” system that the Food Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) plans to adopt in order to help consumers reduce their intake of unhealthy foods is “not evidence-based” and has failed to alter buyer behaviour, claim over 40 global experts in a letter to Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya.
    • About Health Star Rating:
      • The “health star rating” system that the Food Safety Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) plans to adopt in order to help consumers reduce their intake of unhealthy foods is “not evidence-based” and has failed to alter buyer behaviour.
      • They argue that “warning labels” instead have been most effective in various countries.
      • In a meeting on February 15, the FSSAI decided to adopt the “health-star rating system”, which gives a product 1/2 a star to 5 stars, in its draft regulations for front of package labelling (FOPL).
      • In the same meeting, the regulator decided that FOPL implementation could be made voluntary for a period of four years.
    • About Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI):
      • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is a statutory body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.
      • The FSSAI has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006, which is a consolidating statute related to food safety and regulation in India.
      • FSSAI is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety.
      • The FSSAI is headed by a non-executive chairperson, appointed by the Central Government, either holding or has held the position of not below the rank of Secretary to the Government of India.
      • The following are the statutory powers that the FSS Act, 2006 gives to the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI):
        • Framing of regulations to lay down food safety standards
        • Laying down guidelines for accreditation of laboratories for food testing
        • Providing scientific advice and technical support to the Central Government
        • Contributing to the development of international technical standards in food
        • Collecting and collating data regarding food consumption, contamination, emerging risks, etc.
        • Disseminating information and promoting awareness about food safety and nutrition in India.
      • The FSSAI has prescribed standards for the following:
        • Dairy products and analogues
        • Fats, oils and fat emulsions
        • Fruits and vegetable products
        • Cereal and cereal products
        • Meat and meat products
        • Fish and fish products
        • Sweets & confectionery
        • Sweetening agents including honey
        • Salt, spices, condiments and related products
        • Beverages, (other than dairy and fruits & vegetables based)
        • Other food product and ingredients
        • Proprietary food
        • Irradiation of food
        • Fortification of staple foods i.e. vegetable oil, milk, salt, rice and wheat flour/maida