geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs -1st October 2021

    1.   FOREIGN CONTRIBUTION (REGULATION) ACT 2010

    • News: The Ministry of Home Affairs has extended the deadline for NGOs to apply for renewal of their Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act registration certificates till December 31.
    • About Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act 2010:
      • The Foreign Contribution (regulation) Act, 2010 is an act of the Parliament of India, by the 42nd Act of 2010.
      • It is a consolidating act whose scope is to regulate the acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality by certain individuals or associations or companies and to prohibit acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality for any activities detrimental to the national interest and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
      • The Minister of Home Affairs, Amit Shah introduced the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2020.
      • It sought to make it mandatory for office bearers of any NGO to provide their Aadhaar numbers.
      • It also grants the government powers to stop utilisation of foreign funds by an organisation through a “summary enquiry”.
      • The bill aims at strengthening the compliance mechanism and enhancing transparency and accountability in receiving and utilisation of foreign contributions and facilitating genuine non-governmental organisations or associations who are working for the welfare of the society.

    2.   LINE OF ACTUAL CONTROL (LAC)

    • News: Developments along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Eastern Ladakh have added to the ongoing legacy challenges on India’s active and disputed borders on the western and eastern front, Chief of the Army Staff General Manoj Naravane said on Thursday. According to him, such incidents will continue till a long-term solution is reached, which is to have a boundary agreement.
    • About Line of Actual Control (LAC):
      • The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a notional demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory in the Sino-Indian border dispute.
      • The term is said to have been used by Zhou Enlai in a 1959 letter to Jawaharlal Nehru.
      • It subsequently referred to the line formed after the 1962 Sino-Indian War and is part of the Sino-Indian border dispute.
      • The LAC is generally divided into three sectors:
      • the western sector between Ladakh on the Indian side and the Tibet and Xinjiang autonomous regions on the Chinese side. This sector was the location of the 2020 China–India skirmishes.
      • the middle, mostly-undisputed sector between Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh on the Indian side and the Tibet autonomous region on the Chinese side.
      • the eastern sector between Arunachal Pradesh on the Indian side and the Tibet autonomous region on the Chinese side. This sector generally follows the McMahon Line.

    3.   QUAD INITIATIVES

    • News: The Quad is a partnership among “like-minded” countries and is not ‘designed’ to be a security alliance, said Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison who argued that even China is welcome to contribute to the objective of ensuring a free and open Indo-Pacific.
    • About Quadrilateral Security Dialogue:
      • The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD, also known as the Quad or QUAD) is a strategic dialogue between the United States, India, Japan and Australia that is maintained by talks between member countries.
      • The dialogue was initiated in 2007 by Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, with the support of U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney, Australian Prime Minister John Howard, and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
      • The dialogue was paralleled by joint military exercises of an unprecedented scale, titled Exercise Malabar.
      • The diplomatic and military arrangement was widely viewed as a response to increased Chinese economic and military power, and the Chinese government responded to the Quadrilateral dialogue by issuing formal diplomatic protests to its members.

    4.   COLLEGIUM SYSTEM

    • News: In a month of marathon recommendations to fill up long-pending vacancies in the High Courts, the Supreme Court Collegium led by Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana has suggested the names of 16 judicial officers and advocates to the government for appointment as judges in four different High Courts.
    • About Collegium System:
      • Constitution on Appointment of Judges
        • Article 124(2):This article of the Indian Constitution reads that the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President after consultation with such a number of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose.
        • Article 217:Indian Constitution’s article states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court.
      • Collegium: Evolution of the System
        • First Judges Cases (1981):
        • In this case, it was announced that the primacy of the Chief Justice of India (CJI)s recommendation on judicial appointments and transfers can be refused on logical reason basis.
        • The executive got primacy over the Judiciary for judicial appointments. This continued for the coming 12 years after that.
        • The case of Second Judges:
        • The case took place in 1993.
        • The Supreme court introduced a collegium system. It said that consultation meant concurrence in appointments.
        • After this, the CJIs individual opinion was not taken but an institutional opinion was formed after consulting two more senior-most judges of the Supreme Court.
        • The Third Judges case:
        • This happened in 1998.
        • After the President suggested, the Supreme Court expanded the collegium to a five-member body rather than 3. It included the Chief Justice of India along with 4 senior-most judges.
        • The High Court collegium is led by the Chief Justice there along with four other senior-most judges of the court.
      • What is a collegium?
        • The Collegium System is that under which appointments and promotion and transfer of the judges of the Supreme Court are decided by a forum which consists of the Chief Justice of India plus four of the senior-most judges of the Supreme Court.
        • No such mention (of the Collegium) has been made either in the original Constitution of India or in successive amendments.
      • Process for the appointment of Chief Justice of India:
        • It is the President of India, who appoints the CJI and the other judges in the Supreme Court.
        • It has been a practice that the exiting CJI would recommend his successor.
        • It is strictly a rule that the CJI would only be chosen on a seniority basis. This has happened after the controversy of 1970.
      • Process of appointment of the High Court
        • The Chief Justice of the high court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Governor.
        • The collegium decides on the judge’s appointment and the proposal is sent to the chief minister, who would then advice the Governor and the proposal for appointment would be sent to the Law Minister in the Union Government.
      • How does the collegium system work?
        • The Collegium has to send it’s recommendations of lawyers or judges to the Central Government. Similarly, the Central Government also sends some of its proposed names to the Collegium.
        • The Central Government investigates the names and resends the file to the Collegium for reconsideration.
        • In case the collegium considers the names, suggestions that had been made by the Central Government, it resends the file to the government for final approval.
        • In such a case, the government has to give its assent to the names.
        • The only loophole is that the time limit is not fixed for the government to send its reply.

    5.   AMRUT

    • News: The revamped versions of the Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U) and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) that Prime Minister Narendra Modi will launch on Friday would include convergence with the corresponding missions for rural areas and outcome-based funding for cities, top Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MHUA).
    • About AMRUT:
      • Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission was renamed to Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) and then relaunched by Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi in June 2015 with the focus to establish infrastructure that could ensure adequate robust sewage networks and water supply for urban transformation by implementing urban revival projects.
      • Rajasthan was the first state in the country to submit State Annual Action Plan under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT).
      • The scheme Housing for All by 2022 and Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) were launched on the same day.
      • The scheme is dependent with public–private partnership(PPP) model.
      • The purpose of Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is to use the credibility of the massively successful Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in order to pretend to
      • ensure that every household has access to a tap with assured supply of water and a sewerage connection;
      • increase the amenity value of cities by developing greenery and well maintained open spaces (e.g. parks); and
      • reduce pollution by switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized transport (e.g.walking and cycling).
      • Some of the broad targets of AMRUT scheme are ascertaining that every one has access to tap water and sewerage facilities, greenery like parks and open spaces are well maintained, digital and smart facilities like weather prediction, internet and WiFi facilities, pollution reduction by encouraging the public for using cheaper but secure public transport etc.