geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 1st March 2022

    1.    INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE

    • News: The world faces unavoidable multiple climate hazards over the next two decades with global warming of 1.5°C, and even temporarily exceeding this warming level would mean additional, severe impacts, some of which will be irreversible, according to a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
    • About Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC):
      • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an intergovernmental body of the United Nations responsible for advancing knowledge on human-induced climate change.
      • It was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by United Nations General Assembly.
      • Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, it is composed of 195 member states.
      • The IPCC provides objective and comprehensive scientific information on anthropogenic climate change, including the natural, political, and economic impacts and risks, and possible response options. It does not conduct original research nor monitor climate change, but rather undertakes a periodic, systematic review of all relevant published literature.
      • Thousands of scientists and other experts volunteer to review the data and compile key findings into “Assessment Reports” for policymakers and the general public; this has been described as the biggest peer review process in the scientific community.
      • The IPCC is an internationally accepted authority on climate change, and its work is widely agreed upon by leading climate scientists as well as governments.
      • Its reports play a key role in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), with the Fifth Assessment Report heavily informing the landmark Paris Agreement in 2015.
      • The IPCC began its sixth assessment cycle, to be completed in 2022.
      • The IPCC developed from an international scientific body, the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases set up in 1985 by the International Council of Scientific Unions, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide recommendations based on current research.
      • The IPCC does not conduct original research, but produces comprehensive assessments, reports on special topics, and methodologies based on. Its assessments build on previous reports, highlighting the trajectory towards the latest knowledge; for example, the wording of the reports from the first to the fifth assessment reflects the growing evidence for a changing climate caused by human activity.
      • The IPCC has adopted and published “Principles Governing IPCC Work”, which states that the IPCC will assess:
        • the risk of human-induced climate change,
        • its potential impacts, and
        • possible options for prevention.
      • The IPCC receives funding through a dedicated trust fund, established in 1989 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
      • The trust fund receives annual cash contributions by the WMO, UNEP, and IPCC member governments; payments are voluntary and there is no set amount required. Administrative and operational costs, such as for the secretariat and headquarters, are provided by the WMO, which also sets the IPCC’s financial regulations and rules. The Panel is responsible for considering and adopting by consensus the annual budget.

    2.    GROUP OF FOUR

    • News: German Ambassador to India Walter Lindner says he still hopes India would change its position at the UN, where it has abstained on the Ukraine issue.
    • About G4 nations:
      • The G4 nations, comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan, are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council.
      • Unlike the G7, where the common denominator is the economy and long-term political motives, the G4’s primary aim is the permanent member seats on the Security Council.
      • Each of these four countries have figured among the elected non-permanent members of the council since the UN’s establishment.
      • Their economic and political influence has grown significantly in the last decades, reaching a scope comparable to the permanent members (P5).
      • However, the G4’s bids are often opposed by the Uniting for Consensus movement, and particularly their economic competitors or political rivals.