Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 1st June 2021


    • News: India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) contracted by 7.3% in 2020-21, as per provisional National Income estimates released by the National Statistical Office on Monday, marginally better than the 8% contraction in the economy projected earlier. GDP growth in 2019-20, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, was 4%.
    • Details:
      • The Gross Value Added (GVA) in the economy shrank 6.2% in 2020-21, compared to a 4.1% rise in the previous year.
      • Only two sectors bucked the trend of negative GVA growth — agriculture, forestry and fishing, which rose 3.6%, and electricity, gas, water supply and other utility services (up 1.9%).
      • GVA for trade, hotels, transport, communication and broadcasting-related services saw the sharpest decline of 18.2%, followed by construction (-8.6%), mining and quarrying (-8.5%) and manufacturing (-7.2%).
    • About Gross Value Added (GVA):
      • Gross value added (GVA) is an economic productivity metric that measures the contribution of a corporate subsidiary, company, or municipality to an economy, producer, sector, or region.
      • GVA provides a dollar value for the amount of goods and services that have been produced in a country, minus the cost of all inputs and raw materials that are directly attributable to that production. GVA thus adjusts gross domestic product (GDP) by the impact of subsidies and taxes (tariffs) on products.
      • Gross value added (GVA) is an economic productivity metric that measures the contribution of a corporate subsidiary, company, or municipality to an economy, producer, sector, or region.
      • GVA is the output of the country less the intermediate consumption, which is the difference between gross output and net output.
      • GVA is important because it is used to adjust GDP, which is a key indicator of the state of a nation’s total economy.
      • It can also be used to measure how much money a product or service has contributed toward meeting a company’s fixed costs.


    • News: The Kerala Assembly on Monday unanimously passed a resolution demanding the recall of Lakshadweep Administrator Praful Khoda Patel and the withdrawal of the controversial orders issued by him.
    • Map:


    • About Article 240:
      • The President may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union territory of
      • the Andaman and Nicobar Islands;
      • Lakshadweep;
      • Dadra and Nagar Haveli;
      • Daman and Diu;
      • Pondicherry; Provided that when any body is created under Article 239A to function as a Legislature for the Union territories of Pondicherry, the President shall not make any regulation for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory with effect from the date appointed for the first meeting of the Legislature: Provided further that whenever the body functioning as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry is dissolved, or the functioning of that body as such Legislature remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause ( 1 ) of Article 239A, the President may, during the period of such dissolution or suspension, make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory
      • Any regulation so made may repeal or amend any Act made by Parliament or any other law which is for the time being applicable to the Union territory and, when promulgated by the President, shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to that territory

    3.   5G TECHNOLOGY

    • News: Bollywood actor Juhi Chawla has moved the Delhi High Court seeking a scientific study on any adverse effects of radio-frequency radiation emitted by cellular telecommunications using 5G technology on ‘health, life, organ or limb of adult or child, or to flora and fauna’ before its official rollout in the country.
    • About 5G Technology:
      • In telecommunications, 5G is the fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began deploying worldwide in 2019, and is the planned successor to the 4G networks which provide connectivity to most current cellphones.
      • All 5G wireless devices in a cell are connected to the Internet and telephone network by radio waves through a local antenna in the cell.
      • The main advantage of the new networks is that they will have greater bandwidth, giving higher download speeds, eventually up to 10 gigabits per second (Gbit/s).
      • Due to the increased bandwidth, it is expected the networks will increasingly be used as general internet service providers for laptops and desktop computers, competing with existing ISPs such as cable internet, and also will make possible new applications in internet of things (IoT) and machine to machine areas.
      • The increased speed is achieved partly by using additional higher-frequency radio waves in addition to the low and medium band frequencies used in previous cellular networks.
      • However, higher-frequency radio waves have a shorter useful physical range, requiring smaller geographic cells. For wide service, 5G networks operate on up to three frequency bands – low, medium, and high.
      • A 5G network will be composed of networks consisting of up to three different types of cells, each requiring specific antenna designs as well as providing a different tradeoff of download speed to distance and service area.


    • News: A dynamite blast led to the flooding of a coal mine in East Jaintia Hills district in Meghalaya, trapping five labourers.
    • About Coal Reserves in India:
      • Coal in India has been mined since 1774 and is now the second fastest mined in the world, producing 716 million metric tons (789 million short tons) in 2018.
      • India has the fourth largest coal reserves in the world. In 2017, India had 315.14 billion metric tons (347.38 billion short tons) of coal. The estimated total reserves of lignite coal that month was 44.70 billion metric tons (49.27 billion short tons). Due to high demand and poor average quality, India imports coking coal to meet the requirements of its steel plants. India’s coal imports have risen from 49.8 million metric tons (0.0549 billion short tons) in 2007–08 to 191 million metric tons (0.211 billion short tons) in 2016–17.
      • Dhanbad city is the largest coal producing city and is called the Coal Capital of India. State-owned Coal India had a monopoly on coal mining between its nationalisation in 1973 and 2018.
      • India has abundant domestic reserves of coal. Most of these are in the states of Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh. On account of the growing needs of the steel industry, a thrust had to be given on systematic exploitation of coking coal reserves in Jharia coalfield in Jharkhand.