Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 1st December 2021


    • News: Delhi’s three municipal corporations — North, South and East — continue to perform dismally in the Central Government’s annual cleanliness survey.
    • About Swachh Survekshan:
      • Swachh Survekshan (Cleanliness survey) is an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation in villages, cities and towns across India.
      • It was launched as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which aimed to make India clean and free of open defecation by 2 October 2019.
      • The first survey was undertaken in 2016 and covered 73 cities (53 cities with a population of over a million, and all state capitals); by 2020 the survey had grown to cover 4242 cities and was said to be the largest cleanliness survey in the world. The surveys are carried out by Quality Council of India.
    • About Quality Council of India:
      • The Quality Council of India (QCI) was set up as a public private partnership model on the model existing in Netherlands at the time, where although the NAB was not owned by the government, yet it was supported by it and was exceedingly used as a third party agency to improve quality in departments and industry.
      • QCI thus, came to be organized as an independent autonomous body that worked towards assuring quality standards across all spheres of economic and social activities.
      • Key industry associations, i.e. Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM), Confederation of Indian Industry(CII) and Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) became the promoters of the organizers and QCI got established under the Societies Registration Act in 1997 to provide accreditation services in various sectors for product, services and persons.
      • The Council is independent and works under the directions of its Governing Body (GB) having equal representation of government, industry and industry associations.
      • It does not get funded by the government and is a self-sustaining non-profit organization with its own Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Rules.


    • News: The Uttarakhand Government on Tuesday took back the Char Dham Devasthanam Board Act that sought to extend control over 51 temples and had been opposed tooth and nail by their seers and managements.
    • About Badrinath Temple:
      • Badrinath or Badrinarayana Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Vishnu which is situated in the town of Badrinath in Uttarakhand, India.
      • The temple is also one of the 108 Divya Desams dedicated to Vishnu, who is worshipped as Badrinath—holy shrines for Vaishnavites.
      • People following the Jain religion worship the temple and idol belonging to Rishbhdev (Rishabhanatha) or Adinath, the first Tirthankar of Jainism.
      • It is open for six months every year (between the end of April and the beginning of November), because of extreme weather conditions in the Himalayan region.
      • The temple is located in Garhwal hill tracks in Chamoli district along the banks of Alaknanda River.It is one of the most visited pilgrimage centers of India, having recorded 1,060,000 visits.
      • The image of the presiding deity worshipped in the temple is a 1 ft (0.30 m), the black granite deity of Vishnu in the form of Badrinarayan.
      • The deity is considered by many Hindus to be one of eight swayam vyakta kshetras, or self-manifested deities of Vishnu.


    • News: More than six lakh Indians renounced citizenship in the past five years, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) informed the Lok Sabha.
    • About Acquisition and loss of Indian Citizenship:
      • All persons born in India between 26 January 1950 and 1 July 1987 automatically received citizenship by birth regardless of the nationalities of their parents. From 1 July 1987 until 3 December 2004, children born in the country received Indian citizenship by birth if at least one parent was a citizen. Since then, citizenship by birth is granted only if both parents are Indian citizens, or if one parent is a citizen and the other is not considered an illegal migrant.
      • Children born overseas are eligible to become Indian citizens by descent if at least one parent is a citizen. The birth of eligible persons must be registered at an Indian diplomatic mission within a certain timeframe for citizenship to be granted. Individuals born before 3 September 2004 were not required to have had their birth registered and received citizenship by descent automatically, unless either parent was an Indian citizen by descent, in which case registration of their birth was mandatory. Prior to 10 December 1992, only children of Indian fathers (not mothers) were eligible for citizenship by descent. Indian citizens by descent who hold another nationality automatically cease to be Indian citizens six months after reaching the age of 18, unless they renounce their foreign nationality.
      • Certain non-citizens qualify for citizenship by registration if they are married to an Indian citizen, are minor children of Indian citizens, or are of Indian origin and living either in the country or outside the area of pre-partition India.
      • Persons whose parents are Indian citizens, who themselves or their parents had previously held Indian citizenship, or have held overseas citizenship for at least five years are also eligible to acquire citizenship by registration. Eligible individuals must be resident in the country for at least 12 months prior to an application for registration, and are subject to additional residence requirements depending on the criterion they qualified under.
      • All other foreigners may become Indian citizens by naturalisation after residing in the country for at least 11 of the previous 14 years, with an additional 12 months of residence immediately preceding an application, a total of 12 years. Anyone acquiring Indian citizenship through either naturalisation or registration must renounce their previous nationalities. Between 2010 and 2019, about 21,000 people naturalised as Indian citizens.
      • Any person deemed to be an illegal migrant is typically barred from obtaining citizenship through both naturalisation and registration. However, migrants from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, or Pakistan who belong to selected religious communities (Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis, or Christians) and arrived in India prior to 2015 are not considered illegal migrants. They are eligible for naturalisation with a reduced residence requirement; at least five years of residence during the previous 14-year period, along with the additional 12 months of residence immediately preceding an application.
      • Indian citizenship can be voluntarily relinquished by any person above the age of majority. Minor children of a person who gave up citizenship also cease to be citizens. On reaching adult age, these children have the option of resuming Indian citizenship within one year. Before 2003, relinquishment required holding nationality of another country, and all married women were considered to be of full age for the purposes of giving up citizenship regardless of their actual age.

    4.    WEST ASIA

    • News: Fourteen people died on Tuesday in an Azerbaijani military helicopter crash which went down in the east of the Caucasus country during a training flight
    • Map: