Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 19th August 2021


    • News: The Delhi government on Wednesday approved a comprehensive action plan (CAP) for eliminating selected single-use plastic (SUP) in the city, according to officials.
    • About Single Use Plastic:
      • SUP is plastic produced and designed to be thrown away after being used only once. By that definition, a large number of products fall in the category.
      • These include everything from a disposable straw to a disposable syringe.
      • India has defined SUP as “a plastic commodity intended to be used once for the same purpose before being disposed of or recycled” in its Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021.


    • News: Fostering a custom Tiwa tribesmen performing a traditional dance as they take part in the Wanchuwa festival in which they pray fior a bountiful harvest n Morten village in Karbi Anglong district of Assam
    • About Tiwa Tribe:
      • Tiwa also known as Lalung is indigenous community inhabiting the states of Assam and Meghalaya and are also found in some parts of Arunachal Pradesh and Manipur.
      • They are recognized as a Scheduled tribe within the state of Assam. But they still do not benefit the ST status in the state of Meghalaya.
      • They are divided into 2 sub-groups- Hill Tiwa and Plains Tiwa which have contrasting cultural features:
        • Hill Tiwa:They live in the westernmost areas of Karbi Anglong district. They speak a Tibeto-Burman language. In most cases, the husband goes to live in her wife’s family settlement (matrilocality), and their children are included in their mother’s clan. One-half of them follow their traditional religion. It is based on the worship of local deities. The other half has been converted to Christianity since the 1950s.
        • Plains Tiwa:They live on the flatlands of the Southern bank of the Brahmaputra valley. The vast majority speak Assamese as their mother tongue. Their descent system is patrilineal. Their religion shares many elements with Assamese Hinduism but remains specific.
      • They practice Jhum or shifting cultivation, where the land is first cleared of any vegetation that is later set on fire (slash-and-burn). The result is a more fertile soil that is freshly enriched with potash, all the more useful for a bountiful crop.
      • The main festivals of the Tiwa tribes are: Three Pisu (Bihu), Borot utsav, Sogra phuja, Wanchuwa, Jonbeel Mela, Kabla, Langkhon Phuja and Yangli Phuja.
      • Pig is a staple part of their diet and their culture.
    • About Wanchuwa festival:
      • This festival is celebrated by Tiwa tribesmen to mark their good harvest.
      • It comes with songs, dances, a bunch of rituals and people clad in their native attires.
      • The people of Tiwa tribe associate the bountiful harvest with the higher power from nature. This takes the form of pigs’ skulls and bones which act as deities and are preserved through many generations.
      • People do plenty of make up in the form of paste made of rice powder. They participate in dance with this make up.
      • With bamboo sticks in hand, the people proceed to rhythmically beat the rice powder, and occasionally pause to move around the circle.
      • Tiwas pray for a bountiful harvest as well as protection from pests and natural calamities.


    • News: Chief Justice of India (CJI) N.V. Ramana on Wednesday voiced in open court his extreme displeasure over “speculative” reports in certain sections of the media about the Supreme Court Collegium having recommended nine names for appointments to the court.
    • About Collegium System:
      • Article 124(2):This article of the Indian Constitution reads that the Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President after consultation with such a number of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as the President may deem necessary for the purpose.
      • Article 217:Indian Constitution’s article states that the Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court.
      • Collegium: Evolution of the System
        • First Judges Cases (1981):
          • In this case, it was announced that the primacy of the Chief Justice of India (CJI)s recommendation on judicial appointments and transfers can be refused on logical reason basis.
          • The executive got primacy over the Judiciary for judicial appointments. This continued for the coming 12 years after that.
        • The case of Second Judges:
          • The case took place in 1993.
          • The Supreme court introduced a collegium system. It said that consultation meant concurrence in appointments.
          • After this, the CJIs individual opinion was not taken but an institutional opinion was formed after consulting two more senior-most judges of the Supreme Court.
        • The Third Judges case:
          • This happened in 1998.
          • After the President suggested, the Supreme Court expanded the collegium to a five-member body rather than 3. It included the Chief Justice of India along with 4 senior-most judges.
          • The High Court collegium is led by the Chief Justice there along with four other senior-most judges of the court.
          • The Collegium System is that under which appointments and promotion and transfer of the judges of the Supreme Court are decided by a forum which consists of the Chief Justice of India plus four of the senior-most judges of the Supreme Court.
          • No such mention (of the Collegium) has been made either in the original Constitution of India or in successive amendments.
        • Process for the appointment of Chief Justice of India:
          • It is the President of India, who appoints the CJI and the other judges in the Supreme Court.
          • It has been a practice that the exiting CJI would recommend his successor.
          • It is strictly a rule that the CJI would only be chosen on a seniority basis. This has happened after the controversy of 1970.
        • Process of appointment of the High Court
          • The Chief Justice of the high court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Governor.
          • The collegium decides on the judge’s appointment and the proposal is sent to the chief minister, who would then advice the Governor and the proposal for appointment would be sent to the Law Minister in the Union Government.
        • How does the collegium system work?
          • The Collegium has to send it’s recommendations of lawyers or judges to the Central Government. Similarly, the Central Government also sends some of its proposed names to the Collegium.
          • The Central Government investigates the names and resends the file to the Collegium for reconsideration.
          • In case the collegium considers the names, suggestions that had been made by the Central Government, it resends the file to the government for final approval.
          • In such a case, the government has to give its assent to the names.
          • The only loophole is that the time limit is not fixed for the government to send its reply.
          • It is now time to think if a permanent solution to institutionalize the process with adequate safeguards to preserve the judiciary’s independence guaranteeing judicial primacy. It should ensure independence, reflect the diversity, demonstrate professional competence and integrity.